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Difference between Fragmentation and Budding

Difference between Fragmentation and Budding


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I have heard about two terms stating similar things - Fission and Fragmentation . I know Amoeba undergoes fission and Fragmentation is done by spirogyra. So what's the main difference between them?


Difference between Binary Fission and Fragmentation

In biology, fission is the subdivision of a cell or a multi-cellular body into one or more parts and the regeneration of each of the parts into a complete individual. It is a simple mitotic division in which each new cell receives half of the cytoplasm of the original cell. The line of cytoplasmic may be either miscellaneous or longitudinal. Examples include Protista, Monera, etc. Binary fission produces two split cells, populations, species, etc., whereas, multiple fission produces more than two cells, populations, species, etc. Prokaryotic fission, which is binary fission, is a form of asexual reproduction and cell division used by all prokaryotes.

Fragmentation is the process of the division of a piece of organism, afterwhich each part differentiates into a full-sized organism. Some helminthes, annelids experience fragmentation. Fragmentation is basically a form of asexual reproduction, where an organism is split into fragments. The splitting might or might not be deliberate. Each of these fragments develop into mature, grown up individuals that are a replica of the original organism. If the organism is split any further, the process is continual. Fragmentation is caused by mitosis. Meiosis is not involved in fragmentation.

Fragmentation may also be used in some other contexts such as music, technology, science, economy, sociology, etc.

Comparison between Binary Fission and Fragmentation:

Binary Fission

Fragmentation

Binary fission is the asexual reproduction of a single-celled organism by division into two roughly equal parts.

Fragmentation is the process of the division of a piece of organism, followed by mitosis cell division.

Fission occurs in uni-cellular organisms.

Fragmentation occurs in multi cellular organisms with simple body organization.


Asexual Reproduction

Asexual reproduction occurs in prokaryotic microorganisms (bacteria) and in some eukaryotic single-celled and multi-celled organisms. There are a number of ways that animals reproduce asexually.

Fission

Fission, also called binary fission, occurs in prokaryotic microorganisms and in some invertebrate, multi-celled organisms. After a period of growth, an organism splits into two separate organisms. Some unicellular eukaryotic organisms undergo binary fission by mitosis. In other organisms, part of the individual separates and forms a second individual. This process occurs, for example, in many asteroid echinoderms through splitting of the central disk. Some sea anemones and some coral polyps (Figure 1a) also reproduce through fission.

Budding

Budding is a form of asexual reproduction that results from the outgrowth of a part of a cell or body region leading to a separation from the original organism into two individuals. Budding occurs commonly in some invertebrate animals such as corals and hydras. In hydras, a bud forms that develops into an adult and breaks away from the main body, as illustrated in Figure 1b, whereas in coral budding, the bud does not detach and multiplies as part of a new colony.

Figure 1. (a) Coral polyps reproduce asexually by fission. (b) Hydra reproduce asexually through budding. (credit a: G. P. Schmahl, NOAA FGBNMS Manager)

Watch a video of a hydra budding.

Fragmentation

Figure 2. Sea stars can reproduce through fragmentation. The large arm, a fragment from another sea star, is developing into a new individual.

Fragmentation is the breaking of the body into two parts with subsequent regeneration. If the animal is capable of fragmentation, and the part is big enough, a separate individual will regrow.

For example, in many sea stars, asexual reproduction is accomplished by fragmentation. Figure 2 illustrates a sea star for which an arm of the individual is broken off and regenerates a new sea star. Fisheries workers have been known to try to kill the sea stars eating their clam or oyster beds by cutting them in half and throwing them back into the ocean. Unfortunately for the workers, the two parts can each regenerate a new half, resulting in twice as many sea stars to prey upon the oysters and clams. Fragmentation also occurs in annelid worms, turbellarians, and poriferans.

Note that in fragmentation, there is generally a noticeable difference in the size of the individuals, whereas in fission, two individuals of approximate size are formed.

Parthenogenesis

Parthenogenesis is a form of asexual reproduction where an egg develops into a complete individual without being fertilized. The resulting offspring can be either haploid or diploid, depending on the process and the species. Parthenogenesis occurs in invertebrates such as water flees, rotifers, aphids, stick insects, some ants, wasps, and bees. Bees use parthenogenesis to produce haploid males (drones) and diploid females (workers). If an egg is fertilized, a queen is produced. The queen bee controls the reproduction of the hive bees to regulate the type of bee produced.

Some vertebrate animals—such as certain reptiles, amphibians, and fish—also reproduce through parthenogenesis. Although more common in plants, parthenogenesis has been observed in animal species that were segregated by sex in terrestrial or marine zoos. Two female Komodo dragons, a hammerhead shark, and a blacktop shark have produced parthenogenic young when the females have been isolated from males.


Additional Science Textbook Solutions

Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life (MindTap Course List)

Understanding Nutrition (MindTap Course List)

Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation

Nutrition: Concepts and Controversies - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

General Chemistry - Standalone book (MindTap Course List)

Fundamentals of Physical Geography

Chemistry: An Atoms First Approach

Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity

Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry

An Introduction to Physical Science

Human Biology (MindTap Course List)

Biology: The Dynamic Science (MindTap Course List)

Human Heredity: Principles and Issues (MindTap Course List)

Horizons: Exploring the Universe (MindTap Course List)

Chemistry for Engineering Students

Cardiopulmonary Anatomy & Physiology

Chemistry: Principles and Reactions

Nutrition Through The Life Cycle

Chemistry for Today: General, Organic, and Biochemistry

Chemistry for Engineering Students

Environmental Science (MindTap Course List)

General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry

Environmental Science (MindTap Course List)

Physics for Scientists and Engineers

Nutrition Through the Life Cycle (MindTap Course List)

Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life (MindTap Course List)

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, Technology Update (No access codes included)


Content: Budding Vs Grafting

Comparison Chart

PropertiesBuddingGrafting
InsertionIn this, bud of a plant is inserted into the rootstockIn this, stem of a plant is inserted into the rootstock
EvolutionNewly emerging techniqueAncient method
ScionBudStem
Expertise in handlingRequires less expertiseRequires technical skills
Size of the scionSmall Larger
PeriodDone during the period of growing season of the stockDone during the period when the stock is dormant in the winter and early spring
TypesT, Inverted T, Patch, I, Forkert, Ring budding etc.Cleft, Bark, Splice, Whip, Side Veneer, Saddle budding etc.
ApplicationApplicable for the fruit, nut and ornamental treesUsed to increase the quality of fruits, flowers or leaves

Definition of Budding

It is defined as the horticulture method of vegetative propagation of a bud. In budding, a bud is cut off with some bark into and inserted into another rootstock by many ways. Budding is a type of grafting, where a scion is a bud instead of a stem. It is widely used in the vegetative propagation of ornamental trees and fruits (peach, plums, apple etc.) and commonly employed during the active growing season.

Definition of Grafting

It is defined as the horticulture method of vegetative propagation of a stem. In grafting, a stem is cut off in such a way that another stem can insert. Both the stems then unite and grow as an individual plant. It is widely used in the vegetative propagation of flowering plants and fruits (peach, plums, apple etc.) and commonly employed during the dormant season (winter and early spring).

Types of Budding

There are several methods in the process of budding, which includes:

T-method: In this method, the bud is inserted into the T-shaped insertion in the original plant’s rootstock.

Inverted T budding: In this method, the horizontal cut is made at the bottom, and the vertical cut is applied on the top. Therefore, the insertion is the contrast to the T budding.

Patch budding: In this patch of a bud is inserted into the rectangular patch of the bark removed from the rootstock.

I budding: In this method, a rectangular bud patch is inserted into the rootstock’s I-shaped insertion.

Forkert budding: In this method, the scion is inserted into the rootstock of the shape (∏). Then this forkert patch is pulled downwards to insert the bud.

Ring budding: This method is also called annular budding. A complete circle is an incision over the stem’s rootstock where the bud stick is then inserted in this method.

Types of Grafting

There are several methods in the process of budding, which includes:

Cleft graft: In this, the stem is inserted into the V-shaped rootstock.

Bark graft: In this, the stem is inserted into the flap cuts in the cambium of the root system.

Splice graft: In this, a diagonal cut is made on both the stem and rootstock so that they can overlap each other.

Whip graft: It is also called tongue graft. In this, an insertion is made so that both stem and the rootstocks have interlocking tongues.

Side veneer grafting: In this, the stem is inserted into the removed wedge of the rootstock.

Saddle graft: In this, both the scion and the rootstock is cultured into the V-shape.


Spore formation

Spores are the asexual reproductive bodies. Spores are not seeds. In the spore formation method of reproduction, the parent plant produces hundreds of tiny spores in spore cases. When the spore case of the plant bursts, then the spores spread into air. As the spores are very light, they keep floating in air and carried over large distances by air. Each spore is covered by a hard, protective coat to withstand unfavourable conditions şuch as high temperature and low humidity. Due to this, spores can survive for a long time. When the air-borne spores land on food (or soil) under favourable conditions (like damp and warm conditions), they germinate and produce new plants.

Most of the fungi, and flowerless plants (such as ferns and mosses) reproduce asexually by means of spores. Bread mould plant which grows on a piece of stale bread is a fungus (whose scientific name is Rhizopus). The common bread mould plant (or Rhizopus fungus) reproduces by the method of spore formation.

The tiny spores of bread mould plant (or Rhizopus fungus) are almost always present in the air. If we keep a moist slice of bread aside for a few days, then the spores of bread mould plant present in air settle on the moist slice of bread and germinate to form new bread mould plants. The bread mould plants first look like a white cottony mass covering the bread slice which later on turns black.

The common bread mould plant consists of fine, thread-like projections called hyphae and thin stems having knob-like structures called sporangia at the top. Each sporangium contains hundreds of minute spores enclosed in a spore case. When the spore case bursts, the tiny spores are dispersed in air. These spores are the asexual reproductive bodies of bread mould plant which can produce more bread mould plants under suitable conditions.

The plants such as ferns and mosses also reproduce by means of spores.

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Process

Sexual Reproduction

This type of reproduction engages both males and females of similar species to get their genetic material. Through the process of meiosis, these genetic material forms gametes and gets half chromosomes individually, called haploid gametes. Fertilization processes when these two gametes, from male and female, unite and produces a diploid zygote having its own inheritable material.

Asexual Reproduction

This type of reproduction is held without any combination of two members of the same species. The division of cells is done through mitosis, where every chromosome cell makes a copy before nucleus division. This way, each new cell gets a piece of identical genetic information.


The small animal which cannot mate with male organism have a benefit to reproduce by Asexual mode of reproduction and producing number of young ones without any cost and time expanding this is major advantage of Asexual mode of reproduction. We know that identical twins are produced in asexual reproduction which have major disadvantage of absent of genetic variation.

Definition of asexual reproduction:-

Mode of reproduction in which there is no formation and fusion of gametes and young ones which produce are identical and represent the exact copies of their parents is known as asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction is also known as apomixis which is the formation of new individual by Asexual Reproduction without involving the formation and fusion of gametes.

What is definition of clone

Morphological and genetical similar individuals which are produced by Asexual mode of reproduction is known as clone.

What do you mean by blastogenesis and blastos

Development of different organisms from non -sexual reproductive units like fragments, buds, gemmules and spore is known as blastogenesis and asexual reproductive body is known as blastos.

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Characteristics of asexual reproduction

1) asexual reproduction does not involves formation and fusion of gametes

2) in asexual reproduction only one parents is get involves so it is called uniparental reproduction

3) in asexual reproduction only mitotic cell division is found in somatic cells of their body

4) in Asexual mode of reproduction new organisms are produced from somatic part of parental body so it is also known as somatogenic reproduction

5) clones which are produced by Asexual mode of reproduction have morphological and genetical identical to their parents so no produce variation and it has no role in evolution

6) it is Rapid mode of reproduction so it is more premitive mode of reproduction than sexual reproduction

Seven types of asexual reproduction

Types of asexual reproduction

1) Fission
2) Budding
3) fragmentation
4) spore formation
5) regeneration
6) parthenogenesis
7) vegetative reproduction

Fission Asexual mode of reproduction

that type of Asexual mode of reproduction in which one parental body of organism divides into two or more daughter cells is known as fission. In the fission process whole parental body is reproductive unit.

On the basis of number of daughter cells produce fission is divided into two types

A) binary fission
B) Multiple Fission

Binary fission in bacteria

during the favourable condition of environment adult parental body get divide into two equal daughter cells is known as binary fission. This is the simplest and most common method of Asexual Reproduction found in protist (amoeba euglena), bacteria ,green algae (chlamydomonas) and Planarian (flatworm). In binary fission the karyokinesis that is division of nucleus is followed by cytokinesis that is division of cytoplasm so nothing is left with the parents ,daughter cells feed grow and repeat the process that’s why organism which are undergoing binary fission are also known as immortal.

Types of binary fission on the basis of plane of cytokinesis

a) irregular binary fission
b) longitudinal binary fission
c) transverse binary fission

Irregular binary fission

in this mode of binary fission process of cytokinesis take place along any plane but its plane is always perpendicular to that of karyokinesis , for example it is found in amoeba

Longitudinal binary fission

in this mode of binary fission cytokinesis takes place along longitudinal Axis for example in euglena

Transverse binary fission

in this mode of binary fission cytokinesis takes place along transverse axis for example Paramecium

Multiple Fission in amoeba

that type of Asexual mode of reproduction in which the parental body divide into many daughter cells during unfavourable condition, by the formation of triple layer of cyst wall. During Multiple Fission the nucleus of parents body divide repeated by amitosis into many nuclei. Multiple Fission is found in number of organism like plasmodium and amoeba

Budding Asexual mode of reproduction

that type of Asexual mode of reproduction in which one or more unicellular multicellular outgrowths called as buds are formed on or inside the parents body, each multicellular our growth bud enlarge develop the parental characters and separated from parents body grow and develop into new adult organism by the process of budding, budding is found in a sponge, hydra and unicellular fungi yeast .

In hydra and Scypha the buding is external type in which bud is formed on the outer surface of parental body that is known as external bud.but in spongilla freshwater sponge buding process is internal and number of buds known as gemmules are formed inside the parents body.

Fragmentation Asexual mode of reproduction

that type of Asexual mode of reproduction in which parental body breaks into two or more fragments, and each body fragments are capable of develop into new organism. This mode of reproduction are found in flat worms, sea anemone hydra and echinoderm.

Asexual reproduction spore formation

members of kingdom fungi and algae reproduce through special Asexual reproductive structure known as zoospores ,

zoospores are flagellated motiles naked protoplasmic body. Formation of zoospores found in ulothrix. And in non motile spore that is known as conodia are found in Penicillium notatum

Asexual reproduction regeneration

that type of asexual reproduction in which organism renewal Restoration growth of several lost part of body like cells tissue and organs, regeneration process is found in planaria

Asexual reproduction parthenogenesis

parthenogenesis is mode of asexual reproduction in which development of an unfertilized ovum into fully formed haploid organisms. This mode of reproduction is found in number of invertebrates aphids and honey bees and some vertebrates like Turkey and some Birds.

There is two types of parthenogenesis one is natural parthenogenesis and second one is artificial parthenogenesis

Vegetative reproduction

it is also Asexual mode of reproduction ine which fragments of plant body like roots stem leaf develop into plant, vegetative reproduction is also known as vegetative propagation

Multiple choice questions

1) irregular binary fission found in which of one of following

A) Euglena
B) Paramecium
C) Amoeba
D) plasmodium

2) longitudinal binary fission is found in which one of following

A) Euglena
B) Paramecium
C) Amoeba
D) plasmodium

3) transverse binary fission is found in which one of the following

A) Euglena
B) Paramecium
C) Amoeba
D) plasmodium

4) multiple binary fission is found in which one of the following

A) Euglena
B) Paramecium
C) hydra
D) plasmodium

5) external budding formation is found in which one of the following

A) Euglena
B) Paramecium
C) hydra
D) plasmodium

6) formation of internal Bud is found in which one of the following

A) Euglena
B) Paramecium
C) hydra
D) spongilla

7) which one of the unicellular fungi is reproduce by budding process

A) yeast
B) Paramecium
C) hydra
D) plasmodium

8) apomixis is also known as which one of following

A) vegetative reproduction
B) asexual reproduction
C) sexual reproduction
D) none

9) individuals produce by asexual mode of reproduction is known as which one of the following


Asexual Reproduction

Asexual reproduction occurs in prokaryotic microorganisms (bacteria) and in some eukaryotic single-celled and multi-celled organisms. Asexual reproduction produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent because the offspring are all clones of the original parent. A single individual can produce offspring asexually and large numbers of offspring can be produced quickly.

In a stable or predictable environment, asexual reproduction is an effective means of reproduction because all the offspring will be adapted to that environment. In an unstable or unpredictable environment asexually-reproducing species may be at a disadvantage because all the offspring are genetically identical and may not have the genetic variation to survive in new or different conditions. On the other hand, the rapid rates of asexual reproduction may allow for a speedy response to environmental changes if individuals have mutations. An additional advantage of asexual reproduction is that colonization of new habitats may be easier when an individual does not need to find a mate to reproduce. There are a number of ways that animals reproduce asexually.

Fission

Fission, also called binary fission, occurs in prokaryotic microorganisms and in some invertebrate, multi-celled organisms. After a period of growth, an organism splits into two separate organisms. Some unicellular eukaryotic organisms undergo binary fission by mitosis. In other organisms, part of the individual separates and forms a second individual. This process occurs, for example, in many asteroid echinoderms through splitting of the central disk. Some sea anemones and some coral polyps (Figure 1a) also reproduce through fission.

Budding

Budding is a form of asexual reproduction that results from the outgrowth of a part of a cell or body region leading to a separation from the original organism into two individuals. Budding occurs commonly in some invertebrate animals such as corals and hydras. In hydras, a bud forms that develops into an adult and breaks away from the main body, as illustrated in Figure 1b, whereas in coral budding, the bud does not detach and multiplies as part of a new colony.

Figure 1. (a) Coral polyps reproduce asexually by fission. (b) Hydra reproduce asexually through budding. (credit a: G. P. Schmahl, NOAA FGBNMS Manager)

Watch a video of a hydra budding. Note that there is no audio in this video.

Fragmentation

Figure 2. Sea stars can reproduce through fragmentation. The large arm, a fragment from another sea star, is developing into a new individual.

Fragmentation is the breaking of the body into two parts with subsequent regeneration. If the animal is capable of fragmentation, and the part is big enough, a separate individual will regrow.

For example, in many sea stars, asexual reproduction is accomplished by fragmentation. Figure 2 illustrates a sea star for which an arm of the individual is broken off and regenerates a new sea star. Fisheries workers have been known to try to kill the sea stars eating their clam or oyster beds by cutting them in half and throwing them back into the ocean. Unfortunately for the workers, the two parts can each regenerate a new half, resulting in twice as many sea stars to prey upon the oysters and clams. Fragmentation also occurs in annelid worms, turbellarians, and poriferans.

Note that in fragmentation, there is generally a noticeable difference in the size of the individuals, whereas in fission, two individuals of approximate size are formed.

Parthenogenesis

Parthenogenesis is a form of asexual reproduction where an egg develops into a complete individual without being fertilized. The resulting offspring can be either haploid or diploid, depending on the process and the species. Parthenogenesis occurs in invertebrates such as water flees, rotifers, aphids, stick insects, some ants, wasps, and bees. Bees use parthenogenesis to produce haploid males (drones) and diploid females (workers). If an egg is fertilized, a queen is produced. The queen bee controls the reproduction of the hive bees to regulate the type of bee produced.

Some vertebrate animals—such as certain reptiles, amphibians, and fish—also reproduce through parthenogenesis. Although more common in plants, parthenogenesis has been observed in animal species that were segregated by sex in terrestrial or marine zoos. Two female Komodo dragons, a hammerhead shark, and a blacktop shark have produced parthenogenic young when the females have been isolated from males.


Types of asexual reproduction (Binary fission, Budding, Regeneration, Sporogony, Parthenogenesis & Tissues culture)

This type is common in the most primitive unicellular organisms such as Simple algae, Bacteria, many protozoans such as Amoeba and Paramecium, Binary fission happens under different conditions, In suitable conditions, The nucleus divides by mitosis, The cell (that represents the unicellular organism) divides into 2 cells, where each one of them becomes a new individual.

In unsuitable conditions, Amoeba ( unicellular organism ) secretes a chitinous coat around its body for protection, It divides within that coat several times by repeated binary fission to produce many young Amoeba, The young Amoeba are released from the cyst once the surrounding conditions are improved.

Budding

Some unicellular organisms , as well as some multicellular ones reproduce by budding as follows:

In unicellular organisms
  1. The bud arises as a lateral projection on the original cell.
  2. The nucleus divides mitotically into 2 nuclei, where one of them remains in the parent cell, while the other moves towards the bud.
  3. The bud grows gradually, then it may remain connected with the parent cell till its full growth, then it separates from it or continues in its connection with the parent cell, forming cellular colonies with the other growing buds.

Example: Yeast fungus

In multicellular organisms
  1. The bud grows as a small cellular protrusion from one side of the body, due to the division of the interstitial cells and their differentiation to a bud.
  2. The bud grows gradually to resemble the parent entirely.
  3. The new individual usually separates to start its life independently.

Examples: Hydra, Sponges.

The sponges and Hydra reproduce sexually besides their ability to reproduce asexually by budding and regeneration.

Types of asexual reproduction

Regeneration

This method is common in many plants, Some animals such as sponges and Hydra and sea star (starfish), Some worms such as Planaria, The capacity for regeneration decreases by increasing the animals’ evolution.

Higher animals (regeneration for compensation)

Regeneration is not considered as a reproduction in some organisms, where it is limited to compensating the lost parts of their body, due to an accident or a rupture of the tissues.

  • Higher vertebrates: regeneration never exceeds the healing of wounds, especially those located in the skin, blood vessels and muscles.
  • Some crustaceans and amphibians: regeneration is limited to the compensation of the cut parts only.
Lower animals (regeneration for reproduction)

Regeneration is considered as a reproduction in some organisms, as any cut part will grow into a new individual.

  • Hydra is able to regenerate as if it is cut into several transverse pieces, where each part will grow into a new individual.
  • Planaria (common freshwater flatworm) is able to regenerate, even if it is cut into several transverse pieces or 2 longitudinal parts, where each part will grow into a new individual.
  • Seastar (Starfish) can regenerate, if one of its arms is cut with a piece of its central disc to a full sea star within a short time, this type of sea stars forms a danger on the pearl mussels since the one sea star can devour about ten mussels daily including the pearl, therefore the breeders of those mussels in the pearl farms were collecting the sea stars, tearing them up into pieces, and then throw them back into the sea, Although they tried to get rid of them, they were unintentionally helping in their reproduction, so that they resorted to burn them.

Sporogony

Some primitive plants reproduce by means of a single cell called spores that are modified to grow directly into a complete plant.

A spore is formed of cytoplasm with a little amount of water, a nucleus and surrounded by a thick coat, It is a single cell that modified to grow directly into a new complete organism under suitable conditions for its growth such as in some primitive plants.

Sporogony stages:

  1. After the spore maturation, it liberates from the mother plant to distribute in the air.
  2. When it reaches a suitable medium for growth, it absorbs water and its coat ruptures.
  3. It divides several times by mitosis, till it grows into a new individual.

Examples: Many fungi such as bread mold and mushroom, Some algae and ferns.

Advantages of sporogony:

  • Quick propagation.
  • Tolerance to hard conditions.
  • Distribution to distant regions.

Parthenogenesis

Parthenogenesis is the ability of the ovum to develop into a new individual without being fertilized by a male gamete, Parthenogenesis occurs in a number of worms, crustaceans & insects.

Parthenogenesis is considered as a special kind of asexual reproduction , where the progeny comes only from one parent only which is the mother’s gamete, Parthenogenesis can happen naturally or artificially as follows.

Natural parthenogenesis

Honey bee: the queen produces the eggs by meiotic division, where:

  • Some eggs grow by parthenogenesis and develop without fertilization ( asexual reproduction ), forming drones that are haploid (n).
  • Some others develop after fertilization (sexual reproduction) to form the queen and workers that are diploid (2n).

Aphid insect: the eggs result from a mitotic division (without fertilization), where they develop into diploid (2n) individuals.

Artificial parthenogenesis

Frog and sea star: Parthenogenesis has been induced artificially by activating the eggs through their exposure to thermal or electric shock or radiation some salt or agitation or pricking with a needle, These stimuli lead to the duplication of the chromosomes without fertilization, forming new individuals that are totally identical to their mother.

Rabbits: by using stimulants that are similar to the previous stimuli to form early embryonic stages of rabbits from their ova.

Tissues culture

Scientists carry out experiments on the animal and plant tissues culture, Tissues culture is the growth of living tissue (its cells contain the whole genetic information) in a proper semi-natural nutritive medium and following its tissues differentiation and progress into a full developed organism.

Experiment (1) on the carrot plant:

Separation of small pieces of carrot plant in glass tubes containing the coconut milk (which comprises the whole plant hormones and nutrient elements that are necessary for plant growth), then these pieces began to grow and differentiate into a full carrot plant.

Separation of some cells from the same plant tissues and cultivated them by the same method to obtain a whole plant.

Experiment (2) on tobacco plant:

Separation of some cells from tobacco leaves and cultivating them by the same previous method so that we can obtain a full tobacco plant.

The scientific idea for plant tissues culture: Any somatic cell in the plant that comprises the whole genetic information can develop into a full plant, if it is cultivated in a proper nutritive medium, containing the plant hormones with a certain ratio.


Watch the video: Starfish Seastars Regenerating their Arms with Tidepool Tim of Gulf of Maine Biological Supply (October 2022).