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Homework problem:Introductory genetics

Homework problem:Introductory genetics


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The problem is as following:

Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) is caused by an autosomal recessive gene. 50% of patients with PCD also have Kartagener Syndrome. Josh has Kartagener Syndrome. What is the chance his brother or sister also have this syndrome?

A 0% B 6.3% C 12.5% D 25% E 50%

Is this problem actually solvable without knowing the alleles combination of the parents? The answer states C, but perhaps I'm missing something here.


Ok, Josh has PCD. That gives three possible genotypes for parents:- ( let the alleles be P and p)

1) Pp x Pp 2) Pp x pp 3) pp x pp

In (1), the probability for next child to be pp is 25% and to have the disease is 12.5%.

In (2) and (3), the probability of any parent to be pp is rare as the p allele is quite rare (discussions with swbarnes2 in comments). So the real probability will be only slightly higher than that of case 1 i.e. 12.5%


Since the answer is C it means both parents are heterozygous.

There are two possible alternatives:

  1. Both parents are homozygous to the recessive allele
  2. One is homozygous to the recessive allele and the other is heterozygous

In the first case the answer will be 50%, and in the second case it will be 37.5%

So yes, the question is missing crucial information.


Genetics Homework Help

Genetics is a branch of biology that involves studying genes, which are the basic units of heredity. Genes are found in every living organism and are inherited from the parents. They enable the continuation of a species as well as the formation of a new species through evolution. The genes contain information on the characteristics and functions of living organisms. They determine the appearance of the organism and its abilities. The diversity that is observed within living organisms is caused by the expression of these genes. Genetics has led to advances in medicine, biotechnology, molecular biology and recombinant DNA technology.


Genetics Questions

This material may consist of step-by-step explanations on how to solve a problem or examples of proper writing, including the use of citations, references, bibliographies, and formatting. This material is made available for the sole purpose of studying and learning - misuse is strictly forbidden.

Q1. Number of SNP in human genome.
Ans:
The normal frequency of SNPs = 1 in 1000bp.
Human genome = 3x10^9 bp, hence the number of SNPs in human genome = 3x10^6.
Q2.
Ans:
SNP may have a variable number of effect.
When present in Exons, the SNP might change the amino acid sequence and thus the protein that can be either more active or ineffective or inactive. It might not change the amino acid sequence, and just be a change in the nucleotide sequence. It might change the amino acid sequence such that a truncated protein is produced or it may change the nucleotide such that the null gene or pseudogene is formed.
When present in intron and intragenic regions, SNP may affect gene regulation, DNA replication, rate of transcription, etc. The SNP might cause local topographical changes, DNA affecting its properties.
Q3.
DNA microarray:
In this technique, an array of unique nucleotides in multiple copies is arranged in a defined way on a solid matrix such a glass surface. The sequence of these spots is defined and is saved in a computer. The genome of any organism is fragmented, labelled and then the fragments are allowed to pair with the array. The complementary sequences get paired with their corresponding spot and the change in fluorescence is measured. Form the computer database of that array the sequence of bound DNA at that spot is identified. Hence we can know about different sequences present in the genome as well as their relative amounts (concentrations) based on the fluorescence change, that is in-turn based on how many DNA fragments have bound to a particular spot. DNA microarray of two individuals can tell about their differences in the Genome sequence, such as SNPs, mutations, deletions, etc. If performed only with the cDNAs isolated from any individuals, microarray can also tell about the relative abundance/expression of transcripts.

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Genetics and dna technology | Biology homework help

In coming years, the development in genetics is going to have a big impact on medicine, especially in the areas of diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases. The following link explores some of those applications.

Read about Genetics and DNA technology in chapter 8. Based on what you learned in chapter 8 and from the article on the website, post two paragraphs on

  • Choose a technology and the applications of DNA technology in medicine.
  • Discuss the pros and cons of the technology you chose

Please don’t copy sentences out of the book or websites. Please specify the technology you are discussing.

Read your classmates’ postings, and respond to at least three of them. Do not cut and paste. Using 5 or more words from another source without quoting and referencing it is considered plaigarism and will result in a zero grade earned for the assignment. Use APA formatting and at least two references.


Genetics And Cellular Biology Questions

This material may consist of step-by-step explanations on how to solve a problem or examples of proper writing, including the use of citations, references, bibliographies, and formatting. This material is made available for the sole purpose of studying and learning - misuse is strictly forbidden.

Q a)
A gene is a basic building block of data whereby the blueprints to a protein are encoded. The gene is composed to the upstream untranslated region (UTR), coding region, and downstream UTR. The UTR regions are important for the assembly to transcriptional and translational machinery essential for the production of protein, whereas the coding region specifies the protein itself.
DNA is composed of nucleotides, a combination of adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine. During transcription this converted into mRNA, the RNA equivalent to DNA. The mRNA may then be processed further via splicing or the addition of a poly-A tail or 5' G cap, before it assembles into a ribosome for translation. Transfer RNAs read the mRNA sequence in sets of three (codons), and add the appropriate amino acid correlating to the codon to the polypeptide chain. This process only ends when a stop codon is reached.

Q b) Given all F1 from Cross 1 were black bodies despite being heterozygous, this suggests the black body allele is dominant over non.

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Genetics Homework

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(Solved): DNA And Genetics Biology Homework Help Question Description You are currently learning abo .

You are currently learning about DNA and genetics. If you were to do an internet search of various terms you see in these chapters, you might be surprised about how much these topics are in current news stories. Often, these stories raise complex questions that encompass both science and ethics. Your discussion assignment is to find a current news article (published within the last 6 months) that deals with DNA, genetic testing, genetic engineering, etc. Post the link to the article, and give a BRIEF synopsis (no more than a paragraph) IN YOUR OWN WORDS. Once you have given the information about the article, share your opinion on the topic. Does the article raise interesting/exciting/scary questions? Does it deal with something you feel would be very helpful to us in the future, or dangerous (or possibly even both. )

Again, the article should be current and in the popular press, not a Wikipedia article or something from a CDC/government/university/textbook website. Go for newspapers, news/science magazines, etc.

Examples of websites you CAN use: The New York Times, Time Magazine, Scientific American, The L.A. Times, Popular Science, Discover Magazine

Examples of websites you CANNOT use: Wikipedia (a resource but not “news”), cdc.gov (a great resource, but again, not “news”), naturalnews.com (or any other conspiracy-theory quackery blog…)

Finally, let’s try to be original…If EVERYONE hits Google and searches DNA Fingerprinting, then chooses the first article that comes up, I will get VERY bored while grading…Find me some interesting stuff!

There is not an official length requirement for this assignment, but I expect the topics to be covered thoughtfully and thoroughly (translation: a couple of sentences isn’t going to do it). Be sure you use complete sentences, proper spelling and grammar.


Biology Homework Chapter 10: DNA Structure

Textbook assignment: Chapter 10: Molecular Biology of the Gene, sections 1-16.

Study Notes
  • 10.1 The discovery of the genetic role of nuclear material belongs to Frederick Griffith, who was able to show that bacteria absorbed and expressed genetic material from another organism. The radioactive tracing experiments of Hershey and Chase led to the conclusin that DNA, not protein material inthe nucleus, contained the inherited genetic information passed from one generation to the next. [This is a truncated history of the discovery of DNA more is covered in the Weblecture linked below.]
  • 10.2 Review polymers (ch. 2). Be able to identify each part of a DNA or RNA monomer and explain the differences between DNA and RNA, and the primary characteristics of each of the four nitrogenous bases: thymine and cytosine (pyrimidines), and adenine and guanine (purines).
  • 10.3 Study the diagrams of the double helix, and be able to explain why A always bonds with T and G with C (size, number of H-bonds). Our model for the double-strand DNA molecule comes from the work of Rosalind Franklin, who gathered the data, and Watson and Crick, who were able to explain it, during the early 1950s.
  • 10.4 Because C and G always bond together, and A and T always bond together, either strand of DNA contains enough information to construct the entire helical form.
  • 10.5 DNA is split by one set of enyzymes, then each strand is filled out with a matching strand by DNA polymerase. Because the polymerase can only "walk" the DNA strand in one direction, replication of the opposite-facing strand occurs in segments that are then fused together with DNA ligase. This process has important implications for genetic research.
  • 10.6 A gene is the instruction set that allows a cell to create specific proteins and enzymes from the twenty available amino acids. A single strand of RNA contains the information for one of the strands of DNA in a gene segment.
  • 10.7Transcription is the process of creating an RNA copy of a DNA strand. Every three nucleotides or codon on the strand maps to a specific amino acid, or to a sequence that tells the RNA that it is at the end of a gene.
  • 10.8 There are only twenty amino acids, but there are 4 3 = 64 possible combinations of 3 codons, each of which can have one of four possible values. In some cases, only one codon maps to a given amino acid in others, 2, 3 or 4 codons all map to the same amino acid. This redundance provides some flexibility and lowers the risk (but does not eliminate it) of a mutation causing the wrong amino acid to be added to a protein chain.
  • 10.9 The transcription process occurs when the enzyme RNA polymerase interacts with a DNA strand, temporarily splitting it at the H-Bonds between C and G or A and T, and creating an RNA copy of the sequence in the strand.
  • 10.10 The completed messenger RNA or mRNA strand that will carry the sequence information is read in place in prokaryotic cells, which have no nuclear membrane. In eukaryotic cells, however, the RNA must be packaged so that it can survive passage through the nuclear membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum and ribosome complexes where protein manufacture will take place.
  • 10.11 Transfer RNA or tRNA is an RNA-based complex that binds to the mRNA, "reads" it, and uses the codon information in the mRNA to create a polypeptide chain of the correct amino acids in the right order.
  • 10.12 The tRNA complex is held within a structure called a ribosome which keeps all the parts -- tRNA, mRNA, proteins, and amino acids, in the right positions for the construction project.
  • 10.13-10.14 The ribosomal structure reads through the mRNA package until it finds the start of the codon information it needs to make a protein. It then attaches initiator tRNA with the correct amino acid to the codon on the mRNA and shifts the initiator tRNA into a holding site while it does the same thing with the next codon. It switches the growing polypeptide chain from the earlier operation to the newest amino acid, then repeats the process. As the chain grows, it folds into its secondary and tertiary structure, ensuring that it will not break. At the end of the chain formation process, the ribosome releases the protein.
  • 10.15 The flow of information stored in DNA is copied to RNA and manifested in the proteins created in the ribosome complex. Information does not flow back into the nucleus.
  • 10.16 Mutations can occur that do change the order of the amino acids in the protein. The substitution of a nucleotide base can change a codon so that it programs a single incorrect amino acid into the chain. This may or may not affect the function of the protein. The deletion of a base shifts all subsequent bases in the sequence, programming completely different amino acids. A deletion usually corrupts the enzyme so that it can no longer function properly.

Web Lecture

Read the following weblecture before chat: DNA Structure and Gene Inheritance

Take notes on any questions you have, and be prepared to discuss the lecture in chat.

Study Activity

Perform the study activity below:

Work through the BioCoach Activity DNA Structure and Replication

Chapter Quiz

Lab Work

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The estimated amount of time this product will be on the market is based on a number of factors, including faculty input to instructional design and the prior revision cycle and updates to academic research-which typically results in a revision cycle ranging from every two to four years for this product. Pricing subject to change at any time.


Mendelian genetics lab | Biology homework help

The laws of segregation, independent assortment, and dominance, discovered in the mid 19th century by Gregor Mendel, form the basis of all genetics. The ability to predict the results of crossing experiments and explain any variance between expected and observed results is still a vital part of our understanding of heredity. The relationship between the genotype and the phenotype of an organism is now understood with better clarity than it was in the early part of the 20th century. Today our ability to determine gene sequences in individual organisms and populations of organisms has allowed us to deepen our understanding of heredity. In this lab assignment you will experiment with monohybrid crosses and explore the role of chance in genetics.

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Watch the video: How economic inequality harms societies. Richard Wilkinson (February 2023).