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In this activity, you and a partner will work together to produce a baby dragon. You will simulate meiosis and fertilization, the biological processes by which the parents' genes are passed on to a baby. To begin, we will review meiosis and fertilization for dragons that have only one chromosome with a single gene.
This gene codes for the enzyme that makes the pigment that gives dragon skin its color.
- The dominant allele, A, codes for a normal enzyme that results in normal skin color.
- The recessive allele, a, codes for a defective enzyme that cannot make skin pigment, so an 'aa' dragon is an albino with completely white skin.
★ Suppose that each dragon parent has the pair of homologous chromosomes shown.
Draw the chromosomes of the two types of eggs and the two types of sperm produced by meiosis. Then, draw the chromosomes of the zygotes that are produced when the different types of sperm fertilize the different types of eggs. Next, use an asterisk (*) to indicate any zygote or zygotes that will develop into albino baby dragons.
In this activity, you will work with a partner to carry out a simulation of meiosis and fertilization and produce a baby dragon. Each student will be a surrogate dragon parent who has the genes indicated on a set of three Popsicle sticks. Each side of a Popsicle stick represents one chromosome, and the two sides together represent a pair of homologous chromosomes. This table explains how the simulation mimics the biological processes of meiosis and fertilization.
The parents' diploid cells have pairs of homologous chromosomes. Meiosis separates each pair of homologous chromosomes, so each gamete receives only one from each pair of chromosomes. Thus, the parents' diploid cells have two copies of each gene, but each haploid gamete has only one copy of each gene.
Each dragon parent drops his or her Popsicle sticks on the table or desk, and the side of each Popsicle stick that is facing up indicates which chromosome from each homologous pair is included in the gamete. The alleles from this chromosome are recorded in the Egg or Sperm column in the charts on page 4.
When a haploid sperm fertilizes a haploid egg, this produces a diploid zygote with one copy of each gene from the mother and one copy from the father. These genes determine the phenotypic traits of the baby dragon that develops from this zygote.
The dragon parents record the phenotypic traits of their baby in the Baby's Traits column in the charts on page 4.
1. Choose a partner carefully. You and your spouse will share the grade for this lab. Your instructor does not care which partner worked the hardest. This is a no divorce classroom. The lab must be completed on time.
2. Each partner must pick up a bundle of three Popsicle sticks -- one green autosome, one yellow autosome, and one sex chromosome stick. Parent partners must be of the opposite sex; therefore one parent must pick up a bundle with a double X chromosome Popsicle stick (red) and the other must pick up a bundle with an X/Y chromosome Popsicle stick (blue).
3. Record the alleles from both sides of each Popsicle stick for Mom in the first column of the charts on page 4 and the alleles from both sides of each Popsicle stick for Dad in the second column.
4. Use the decoding chart on page 3 to figure out the phenotypic effects of each parent’s genes. Record Mom's and Dad's phenotypic traits in the last two columns of the charts on page 4.
5. For each color autosome and then for the sex chromosomes, each parent will randomly drop his or her stick on the table or desk. The side of the stick that is up represents the chromosome that is passed onto the baby via meiosis and fertilization. Record the alleles from this chromosome in the Egg or Sperm columns in the charts on page 4.
6. Next, you must decode the genes inherited by your bundle of joy to determine the phenotype of your baby. Record the trait produced by each pair of alleles in the Baby's Traits column of the charts on page 4. If your baby dragon is aa, be sure to take this into account when assessing the phenotypic effects of the skin color and freckles genes.
7. Using the pictures at the end of this handout, cut out the traits and paste them together to create a picture of your baby. If you prefer, you may trace the traits to produce your baby’s picture. If your baby dragon has them, draw in extra toes, freckles and/or skin color (or label the color).
|Chromosome||Dominant Alleles||Recessive Alleles|
W = Has Wings
L = Long Neck and Tail
A = Normal Skin Pigment
C = Skin Color Dark Green*
w = No Wings
l = Short Neck and Tail
a = Completely White, Including No Freckles
c = Skin Color Light Green*
F = Fire-breather
T = [see below]
R = [see below]
f = Not a Fire-breather
t = [see below]
r = [see below]
|H = Has Horn on Nose||h = hornless|
|Y Chromosome||M = Male Sex (Results in Spike on Tip of the Tail)|
Incompletely Dominant Alleles
TT = five-toed Tt = four-toed tt = three-toed
RR = Lots of Freckles (Draw 10) Rr = Some Freckles* (Draw 5) rr = No Freckle
*If a dragon is aa and therefore unable to make skin pigment, it will have white skin and it will not have any freckles (no matter what alleles it has for the skin color and freckles genes).
|Mom||Dad||Egg||Sperm||Baby's Traits||Mom's Traits||Dad's Traits|
|Mom||Dad||Egg||Sperm||Baby's Traits||Mom's Traits||Dad's Traits|
Use the first line for the alleles on the X chromosomes and the second line for the allele on the Y chromosome. Remember that the sperm will have either an X chromosome or a Y chromosome.
|Mom||Dad||Egg||Sperm||Baby's Traits||Mom's Traits||Dad's Traits|
|None||None||No Spike on Tip of Tail|
Use the baby's phenotypic traits and the figure on the last page of this handout to make a picture of your baby dragon. If your baby dragon has them, draw in extra toes, freckles and/or skin color (or label the color).
1a. What is one phenotypic trait that is the same in Mom, Dad and baby dragon?
1b. Draw a Punnett square to show how your baby dragon inherited the genes that resulted in this trait. In the Punnett square, circle the genotype of your baby dragon.
1c. Suppose that Mom and Dad had a second baby. Would the second baby necessarily have this same trait? Explain why or why not.
2a. Does your baby dragon have exactly the same phenotypic traits as his or her same-sex parent?
2b. If not, choose one trait that differs between the baby and the same-sex parent and explain the genetic reason for this difference.
3a. What is Mendel's Law of Segregation?
3b. Explain how Mendel’s Law of Segregation is simulated by dropping a Popsicle stick and writing the letters on the side facing up in the egg or sperm column of the charts on page 4.
3c. Use an example from this simulation to demonstrate how segregation of two alleles during meiosis, followed by fertilization, can result in a baby that has a new phenotypic trait that is not observed in either parent.
4a. What is Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment?
4b. Explain how Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment is simulated by dropping the green and yellow autosome Popsicle sticks.
4c. Explain why the Law of Independent Assortment does not apply to genes that are close together on the same chromosome.
5. This simulation can be thought of as a simplified model of how meiosis and fertilization result in inheritance. Like all models, this simulation is not a completely accurate model of biological reality. For example, in this simulation, a gamete receives all of the genes on one chromosome from each homologous pair and none of the genes on the other homologous chromosome. Explain why this is not an accurate model of biological reality. Explain how meiosis can result in a chromosome in the gamete that has parts of both chromosomes in a parent’s pair of homologous chromosomes.
6a. For the mom and dad in the simulation, will all of their daughters have horns? Explain why or why not.
6b. For this couple, will all of their sons have horns? Explain why or why not.
6c. Which sex will be more likely to have horns. How might horns be an advantage for this sex? [Be creative in your answer.]
7. Use the decoding chart on page 3 to complete the following table.
Can two individuals with this phenotype have different genotypes? If yes, give an example of the different genotypes.
|Has Five Toes|
|Has No Freckles|
8a. What is epistasis?
8b. Describe an example of epistasis in this simulation.
8c. Explain the molecular basis for this example of epistasis. (Hint: Review the top of page 1.)
9. Phenotypic traits are influenced by environment as well as genotype. Propose an environmental factor that might influence phenotypic traits as the baby dragon grows up, e.g. how long the neck and tail grow or how dark the freckles in the skin become.
Targeting of multiple oncogenic signaling pathways by Hsp90 inhibitor alone or in combination with berberine for treatment of colorectal cancer
There is a wide range of drugs and combinations under investigation and/or approved over the last decade to treat colorectal cancer (CRC), but the 5-year survival rate remains poor at stages II-IV. Therefore, new, more-efficient drugs still need to be developed that will hopefully be included in first-line therapy or overcome resistance when it appears, as part of second- or third-line treatments in the near future. In this study, we revealed that heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors have high therapeutic potential in CRC according to combinative analysis of NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository and chemical genomic database of Connectivity Map (CMap). We found that second generation Hsp90 inhibitor, NVP-AUY922, significantly downregulated the activities of a broad spectrum of kinases involved in regulating cell growth arrest and death of NVP-AUY922-sensitive CRC cells. To overcome NVP-AUY922-induced upregulation of survivin expression which causes drug insensitivity, we found that combining berberine (BBR), a herbal medicine with potency in inhibiting survivin expression, with NVP-AUY922 resulted in synergistic antiproliferative effects for NVP-AUY922-sensitive and -insensitive CRC cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that treatment of NVP-AUY922-insensitive CRC cells with the combination of NVP-AUY922 and BBR caused cell growth arrest through inhibiting CDK4 expression and induction of microRNA-296-5p (miR-296-5p)-mediated suppression of Pin1-β-catenin-cyclin D1 signaling pathway. Finally, we found that the expression level of Hsp90 in tumor tissues of CRC was positively correlated with CDK4 and Pin1 expression levels. Taken together, these results indicate that combination of NVP-AUY922 and BBR therapy can inhibit multiple oncogenic signaling pathways of CRC.
Keywords: Berberine Colorectal cancer Connectivity Map Heat shock protein 90 inhibitor miR-296-5p.
Highly Parallel Genome-wide Expression Profiling of Individual Cells Using Nanoliter Droplets
Cells, the basic units of biological structure and function, vary broadly in type and state. Single-cell genomics can characterize cell identity and function, but limitations of ease and scale have prevented its broad application. Here we describe Drop-seq, a strategy for quickly profiling thousands of individual cells by separating them into nanoliter-sized aqueous droplets, associating a different barcode with each cell's RNAs, and sequencing them all together. Drop-seq analyzes mRNA transcripts from thousands of individual cells simultaneously while remembering transcripts' cell of origin. We analyzed transcriptomes from 44,808 mouse retinal cells and identified 39 transcriptionally distinct cell populations, creating a molecular atlas of gene expression for known retinal cell classes and novel candidate cell subtypes. Drop-seq will accelerate biological discovery by enabling routine transcriptional profiling at single-cell resolution. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Figure 1. Molecular barcoding of cellular transcriptomes…
Figure 1. Molecular barcoding of cellular transcriptomes in droplets
(A) Drop-Seq barcoding schematic . A…
Figure 2. Extraction and processing of single-cell…
Figure 2. Extraction and processing of single-cell transcriptomes by Drop-Seq
(A) Schematic of single-cell mRNA-Seq…
Figure 3. Critical evaluation of Drop-Seq using…
Figure 3. Critical evaluation of Drop-Seq using species-mixing experiments
(A,B) Drop-Seq analysis of mixutres of…
Figure 4. Cell-cycle analysis of HEK and…
Figure 4. Cell-cycle analysis of HEK and 3T3 cells analyzed by Drop-Seq
Figure 5. Ab initio reconstruction of retinal…
Figure 5. Ab initio reconstruction of retinal cell types from 44,808 single-cell transcription profiles prepared…
Figure 6. Finer-scale expression distinctions among amacrine…
Figure 6. Finer-scale expression distinctions among amacrine cells, cones and retinal ganglion cells
Angiogenesis Signaling Pathway
Angiogenesis plays a central role in tumor growth and progression, and its implications have been extensively investigated and described in the literature for various cancers. In the early 1970s, Folkman J was the first to develop the concept of angiogenesis-dependent tumor growth and postulated that the specific blocking of blood flow to the tumor should be a promising strategy for cancer treatment.
An Overview of Angiogenesis
Angiogenesis is de?ned as the process by which new blood vessels are formed from the pre-existing blood vessels in response to numerous mechanical, chemical, and in?ammatory stimuli, enhancing tumor survival and progression. Tumor growth and metastasis depend on angiogenesis and lymph angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is an important factor in the progression of cancer, as tumor cells are dependent on neovascularization for oxygen and nutrients to sustain their growth. Angiogenesis is regulated through the balance of pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors, and these pro-angiogenic factors can be released by a variety of cells, including endothelial cells, monocytes, and tumor cells. During tumor growth, excessive release of angiogenic cytokines and growth factors induces an “angiogenic switch” which stimulates the quiescent, non-proliferating, nearby endothelial cells to grow and promote tumor progression.
Figure 1. The process of angiogenesis. (Rajabi, M Mousa, S, A. 2017)
Angiogenesis is a complex developmental process involving basement membrane degradation, endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation. Angiogenesis plays a central role in normal development and wound healing and in the etiology of many diseases, such as psoriasis, diabetic retinopathy, and cancer. Since angiogenesis plays an essential role in tumor growth and invasion, anti-angiogenesis has been pursued for over 20 years as a route to novel cancer therapies. Many anti-angiogenic therapies have now described that inhibits not only tumor growth but also cancer cell dissemination.
The Process of Angiogenesis Signaling Pathways
The cross-talk between ROS and Ca2+ homeostasis might be important during angiogenesis. It has been shown that, in response to nitric oxide, ROS can induce the activation of Ca2+ channels by glutathionylation. The activation of Nox4 ROS production in response to VEGF seems to be required. Nox2 and eNOS would participate in such activation downstream of Nox4. Eventually, this determines the entry of Ca2+ into the endoplasmic reticulum through Ca2+ channels and into the cytoplasm through plasma membrane-associated channels.
ROS can influence VEGF signaling and angiogenesis through the regulation of transcription. It has long been known that exogenous H2O2 can stimulate the expression or the activity of transcription factors required for angiogenesis, such as Ets-1, NF-kB, and STAT-3. Moreover, there are a number of important genes required for angiogenesis whose expression is ROS-dependent, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).
The transcription factor HIF1α displays a prominent position in the regulation of hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. The stabilization of HIF1α under hypoxia drives the expression of VEGF, angiopoietin, erythropoietin, and SDF-1. All of these cytokines have angiogenic properties. There are two different phases of HIF1α hypoxic stabilization. In the early stage, HIF1α stabilization depends on mitochondrial ROS production, and on VEGF production then, VEGF stimulates the production of ROS through NADPH oxidases, which reinforces HIF1α stabilization. Interestingly, HIF1α also controls Nox4 promoter activity.
VEGFR2 activation begins by receptor dimerization and transphosphorylation, and then several signaling cascades are activated downstream, such as Ras/p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), PI3K/AKT, PLCγ/DAG/PKC/MEK/ERK. PLCγ can mediate calcium release which is induced by IP3. Within those pathways, Rac is a key downstream target/effector of PI3K and can also regulate ADPH oxidase (Nox). It is important to note that VEGFR2 can be directly modified by ROS, through the formation of an inactivating intramolecular disulfide bridge. This could be a feed-forward negative regulation system important for signal termination.
The Therapy for Angiogenesis
For therapeutic angiogenesis, it is essential to understand molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis in relation to tissue hypoxia. While angiogenesis refers to the process of growing new blood vessels, arteriogenesis involves remodeling of existing arterial vessels. Under tissue ischemia, angiogenesis and arteriogenesis simultaneously take place and both processes are essential for the establishment of functional collateral networks. Regulation of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis may involve a distinct set of vascular modulators that jointly accomplish the complex processes of angiogenic and vascular remodeling.
According to Enoch, two hundred powerful angels departed “high heaven” and used women (among other things) to extend their progeny into mankind’s plane of existence. David Flynn referenced an interlinear Hebrew Bible that offers an interesting interpretation of Genesis 6:2 in this regard. Where the King James Bible says, “The sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair,” Flynn interprets as, “The B’nai Elohim saw the daughters of Adam, that they were fit extensions” (emphasis added). [i] In other words, they wanted to incarnate themselves into the material world. The New Testament also suggests this idea when Jude, the brother of our Lord, wrote, “And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation [oikētērion]” (Jude 6). This Greek term, oikētērion, is used by Paul in 2 Corinthians 5:2 to denote the transfigured body given to believers in heaven. This implies that these fallen angels indeed sought to extend part of themselves into earthly bodies. The rendering “fit extensions” seems applicable when the whole of the ancient record is understood to mean that the Watchers wanted to leave their proper sphere of existence in order to enter Earth’s three-dimensional reality. They viewed women—or at least the women’s genetic material—as part of the formula for accomplishing this task. Ancient records suggest the Watchers modified animals as well. For instance, Jubilees implies that interspecies mingling eventually resulted in mutations among normal humans and animals whose “flesh” (genetic makeup) was “corrupted” by the activity, presumably through cross-genetic integration:
And injustice increased upon the earth, and all flesh corrupted its way man and cattle and beasts and birds and everything which walks on the earth. And they all corrupted their way and their ordinances, and they began to eat one another. And injustice grew upon the earth and every imagination of the thoughts of all mankind was thus continually evil. (Jubilees 5:2 underline added, cf. 7:21–25) [ii]
Even the Old Testament contains reference to the mutations that developed among humans following this time frame, including “men” of unusual size and physical strength, who had six fingers, six toes, an animalistic appetite for blood, and even lion-like features (2 Samuel 21:20 23:20). Early church father Eusebius adds other important details:
And they begat human beings, with two wings and then others with four wings and two faces and one body and two heads…still others with horses’ hooves, and others in the shape of a horse at the rear and a human shape at the front…they also made bulls with human heads and horses with dogs’ heads as well as other monsters with horses heads and human bodies…then all kinds of dragon-like monstrous beings. (emphasis added) [iii]
Of the “winged humans” and “dragon-like monsters,” prophecy expert, J. R. Church, once made an interesting point that since this activity was satanic in nature, it refers to the “seed of the serpent” that was at enmity with Christ. “The concept of a reptilian race continues throughout the Bible as a metaphoric symbol of the devil,” Church wrote in Prophecy in the News magazine, February 2009. “Later Scriptures add the term ‘dragon,’ with the implication that these otherworldly creatures were designed with the DNA code of a reptilian race.” Church went on to state that some of these satanic creatures were depicted as “bat-like gargoyles, or winged dragons” in ancient art, and that we should not be surprised that “a humanoid-type reptilian race could cohabit with human women and produce a race of giants.” [iv] In what could be historical support of Dr. Church’s premise, a document fragment found in Cave 4 among the Dead Sea Scrolls contains an admonition by Amram, the father of Moses, to his children. In a badly damaged segment of the text, Amram sees the chief angel of darkness, a Watcher named Melkireshaʿ in the form of a reptilian (bracketed suspension points represent scroll damage/irretrievable text):
I saw Watchers in my vision, a dream vision, and behold two (of them) argued about me and said […] and they were engaged in a great quarrel concerning me. I asked them: “You, what are you […] thus […] about me?” They answered and said to me: “We have been made masters and rule over all the sons of men.” And they said to me: “Which of us do you choose […]
I raised my eyes and saw one of them. His looks were frightening like those of a viper, and his garments were multi-coloured and he was extremely dark […]
And afterwards I looked and behold […] by his appearance and his face was like that of an adder [a venomous snake], and he was covered with […] together, and his eyes […]” [v]
The fact that the Watchers are described in explicitly reptilian terms by the ancient Hebrews grounds the ufological discussion of such beings and their interactions with man firmly in ancient history. As a case in point, Dr. John Mack’s seminal work on the abduction phenomenon cites many cases involving entities meeting the same description as that found in the Dead Sea Scrolls. For example, this description by an abductee named Sara: “The head was the most prominent part of the body and was ‘shimmery,’ looking ‘reptilian,’ almost ‘snake like, serpent like’ and quite elongated.” [vi] Furthermore, contrary to the revisionist accounts given by ancient astronaut theorists, this implies the so-called reptilians are, in fact, Watchers pursuing a more sinister agenda than scientific exploration. Yet, abductee testimonies also suggest that their interest in genetic material is very real.
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WATCH TRAILER: OVER 10 YEARS IN THE MAKING! THE COMING GREAT DELUSION!
Over ten years in the making and featuring world renown scholars, THE COMING GREAT DELUSION features experts in the occult, members of US Government intelligence agencies, prophecy experts like Gary Stearman and LA Marzulli, filmmakers and best selling authors including Dr. Thomas Horn, Josh Peck, Timothy Alberino, Derek and Sharon Gilbert, Stan Deyo, and even the last known interviews with celebrated intellectuals such as Dr. Chuck Missler, Dr. Noah Hutchings, and even the late investigative author Cris Putnam.
Perhaps the most scientific description concerning the Watcher experiments and their genetic modification of humans and animals comes to us from the Book of Jasher, a Hebrew text that appeared in the medieval period claiming to contain material from the ancient book mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. While its origin is debatable, this text preserves the familiar story of the fall of the Watchers, and then adds an exceptional detail that none of the other texts is as unequivocal about, something that can only be understood in modern language to mean advanced biotechnology, genetic engineering, or transgenic modification of species. After the Watchers had instructed humans in the secrets of heaven, note what the text says occurred:
[Then] the sons of men [began teaching] the mixture of animals of one species with the other, in order therewith to provoke the Lord. (Jasher 4:18)
It does seem likely that the phrase “the mixture of animals of one species with the other” means Watchers had taught men something more than natural animal crossbreeding, as this would not have “provoked the Lord.” God made “like” animals of different breeds capable of reproducing. For example, horses can propagate with other mammals of the Equidae classification (the taxonomic “horse family”), including donkeys and zebras. It would not have “provoked the Lord” for this type of animal breeding to have taken place, as God, Himself, made the animals able to do this.
If, on the other hand, the Watchers were crossing species boundaries by mixing incompatible animals of one species with the other, such as a horse with a human (creating, then, a centaur), this would have been a different matter altogether and may cast light on the numerous ancient stories of mythical beings of variant species manufacturing that fit perfectly within the records of what the Watchers were accomplishing. Understandably, this kind of chimera-making would have “provoked the Lord,” and currently raises the serious question of why the Watchers would have risked eternal damnation by tinkering with God’s creation in this way. Several theories exist as to why Watchers would have corrupted natural genotypes, including the ideas that: 1) Because Yahweh had placed boundaries between the species and strictly ordered that “each kind” reproduce only after its “own kind,” the Watchers as rebels sought to break these rules in order to assault God’s creative genius by biologically altering what He had made and 2) The corruption of antediluvian DNA by Watchers was an effort to cut off the birth line of the Messiah. This theory posits that Satan understood the protoevangelium—the promise in Genesis 3:15 that a Savior would be born, the seed of the woman, and that He would destroy the fallen angel’s power. Satan’s followers therefore intermingled with the human race in a conspiracy to stop the birth of Christ. If human DNA could be universally corrupted or “demonized,” they reasoned, no Savior would be born and mankind would be lost forever. Those who support this theory believe this is why God ordered His people to maintain a pure bloodline and not to intermarry with people from the other nations. When the Hebrews breached this command and the mutated DNA began rapidly spreading among men and animals, God instructed Noah to build an ark and prepare for a flood that would destroy every living thing, the purpose of which would be to purge the Earth of the contaminated genotypes and phenotypes.
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SkyWatch TV Author And Former New Age Practitioner Steven Bancarz Exposes Aliens, Demons, Spiritism And The Occult
Finally, a third theory as to why Watchers merged the genetics of various life forms incorporates the voluminous ancient “Watcher” texts into a consistent account regarding the overriding motive for what the Watchers had apparently used DNA for. When this is done, it becomes clear that genetic substances were for them an Earth-centric and organic construction material (or, as Dr. Jacques Vallée called it, “living energy” [vii] ) for building a composite body that would allow them to leave their plane of existence and to enter man’s (see Jude 1:6 2 Pet. 2:4). The challenge of this theory becomes how intermingling various species would satisfy this goal or provide the Watchers with a method of departure from “high heaven” and incarnation into man’s “habitation.” While we will not take time here to explain every detail, the hypothesis involves the Watchers combining species in order to create a soulless or spiritless body—a living but empty “large organism” or “shell” into which they could extend themselves. The rationale here is that every creature as it existed originally had its beginning in God, who wove a barrier between the species and ordered each creature to reproduce “after its own kind.” The phrase “after its own kind” verifies what type of spirit can enter into an intelligent being at conception. When the sperm of a dog meets ovum of a dog and the life of a dog is formed, at the first spark of life, the spirit (or “nature” when speaking of an animal) of a dog enters that embryo and it grows to become a dog in spirit and form. The spirit of a man does not enter it, in the same way that a man is not born with the spirit of a horse or cow. This creature/spirit integrity is part of the divine order and would have kept the Watchers, who wanted to incarnate within the human realm (not just “possess” creatures), from displacing the spirits of humans or animals and replacing them with their own. How did the Watchers overcome this problem? It appears, based on the ancient records (and like modern scientists are doing today), that they blended existing DNA of several living creatures and made something that neither the spirit of man nor beast would enter at conception, for it was neither man nor beast. As Mysterious World, in its 2003 feature, “Giants in the Earth,” noted:
The Nephilim were genetically manufactured beings created from the genetic material of various pre-existing animal species.… The fallen angels did not personally interbreed with the daughters of men, but used their godlike intellect to delve into the secrets of YHWH’s Creation and manipulate it to their own purposes. And the key to creating or recreating man, as we have (re)discovered in the twentieth century, is the human genome—DNA. [viii]
According to this extrapolation from the ancient accounts, the manipulation of living tissue by the fallen angels led to an unusual body made up of human, animal, and plant genetics known as Nephilim, an “Earth-born” facsimile or “fit extension” into which they could incarnate. While this theory significantly adds to the ancient record, it seeks to modernize the ancients’ description of what they, perhaps, did not fully grasp through the lens of a prescientific worldview and vocabulary. Interestingly, science has uncovered unexpected evidence for this in the human genome.
The Washington Post recently published a story on findings that a “mystery” species with partial human DNA once walked the Earth. The story, titled “Sex with Early Mystery Species of Humans Seen in DNA, UW Researcher Says,” is just the latest in a series of similar recent finds, and while no fossilized giant bones were found in this case, a calling card was left in present-day Africans: snippets of “foreign” DNA. “These genetic leftovers do not resemble DNA from any modern humans,” the writer of the article reports before adding this bombshell: “The foreign DNA also does not resemble Neanderthal DNA, which shows up in the DNA of some modern Europeans.… That means the newly identified DNA came from an unknown group” [ix] (emphasis added).
Given the above theories, the biblical story of Nephilim offspring offers the most satisfying answer to this enigma.
One objection occasionally raised against the idea of part-men hybrids born as a result of union between angelic and human “genetics” is the belief that angels are supposedly sexless, since Jesus said at the resurrection that people will neither marry nor be given in marriage but shall be “like the angels in heaven.” However, as James Montgomery Boice points out, the words recorded in Matthew 22:30 are “not the equivalent of saying that the angels are sexless or that they could not have had sexual relations with women if they had chosen to do so. In heaven human beings will not marry but will nevertheless retain their identity, which includes their being either male or female. In the same way, the angels could also have sexual identities. It is significant perhaps that when the angels are referred to in Scripture it is always with the masculine pronoun ‘he,’ and they are always described as men.” [x] Thus, when Jesus said the angels in heaven do not marry, this is a separate matter from what those angels that departed (or were cast out of) heaven were capable of doing and apparently did. Jude 1:6–7 adds a deep and important point about this when it says:
And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day. Even as Sodom and Gomorrha, and the cities about them in like manner, giving themselves over to fornication, and going after strange flesh, are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire. (emphasis added)
It is remarkable here that Jude connects the sin of the fallen angels with the sexual sins of Sodom and Gomorrha using the telling commentary that they had gone after “strange flesh.” This is the Greek sarkos heteros and contains a very important meaning connected to how the men of Sodom and Gomorrha wanted to have sex with angels (see Genesis 19). Thus, their sin is compared by Jude to those angels of one verse earlier, who departed their proper habitation in heaven to comingle with women. The Apostle Paul also resonates these demarcations in 1 Corinthians 15:40 when he says, “There are also celestial bodies, and bodies terrestrial: but the glory of the celestial is one, and the glory of the terrestrial is another.” When explaining that the heavenly body is made up of something entirely different than the earthly body, is Paul speaking metaphysically, or can a difference in the raw material of these bodies be assumed? Certainly it can, because in the previous verse he speaks of the differences between the flesh of men, beasts, fishes, and birds, yet points out how these are all of earthly composition, as opposed to the following verse, in which he clearly divides the celestial body as “another” type of body not of the same “terrestrial” (terra firma, of the Earth) kind.
According to the second-century Apostolic Father, Athenagoras, Lucifer had been the angel originally placed in charge of the earthly “matter” (see the ancient text, Plea for the Christians). After his fall, Satan used his knowledge of creation and genetics to corrupt what God had made. This is interesting in light of modern science and the recent suggestion that genetic abnormalities “may predispose a man to antisocial behavior, including crimes of violence.” [xi] One of the hottest topics in biology today is the science of “epigenetics,” which involves heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotypes that can be caused by “mechanisms” other than normal changes that occur in underlying DNA sequences—thus the title “epi-(Greek: επί, over, above, outer)-genetics.” Whether supernaturalism can play a role as one of these “outer mechanisms” is suggestive, and many scholars believe demonic possession (for instance) can negatively affect chromosomal health. The New Testament is replete with connections between sickness and genetic disorders as directly connected to demonism. According to theologian and spiritual warfare expert Dr. Neil Andersen, “Approximately one-fourth of all the healings recorded in the Gospel of Mark were actually deliverances.” [xii] For example, “They brought unto him many that were possessed with devils: and he cast out the spirits with his word, and healed all that were sick” and, “when he had called unto him his twelve disciples, he gave them power against unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal all manner of sickness and all manner of disease” (Matthew 8:16 10:1).
UP NEXT: The Difference between Demonized Humans and Soulless Hybrids
[i] David Flynn, “Seraphim, Cherubim & Ezekiel’s Wheels: Aliens, Nephilim & the Days of Noah” Watcher Website, last accessed January 10, 2013, http://www.mt.net/
[ii] James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha and the New Testament, Volume 2: Expansions of the “Old Testament” and Legends, Wisdom, and Philosophical Literature, Prayers, Psalms and Odes, Fragments of Lost Judeo-Hellenistic Works, Includes Indexes (New Haven London: Yale University Press, 1985), 2:64.
[iii] Josef Karst, Eusebius Werke, 5. Band: die Chronik (Leipzig 1911).
[iv] J. R. Church, “Mt Hermon: Gate of the Fallen Angels,” Prophecy in the News, February 2009.
[v] “4Q Amram b (4Q544),” Geza Vermes, The Dead Sea Scrolls in English, revised and extended 4th ed. (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995), 312. (Previous ed.: London: Penguin, 1987.)
[vi] John E. Mack, Abduction (NY: Charles Scribner and Sons, 1994), 212.
[vii] Jacques Vallée, The Invisible College: What a Group of Scientists Has Discovered About UFO Influences on the Human Race (New York, NY: Dutton, 1975), 233.
[viii] “Giants in the Earth, Part I: Giants of the Ancient Near East,” Mysterious World, Spring 2003, http://www.mysteriousworld.com/Journal/2003/Spring/Giants/.
[ix] Brian Vastag, “Sex with Early Mystery Species of Humans Seen in DNA, US Researcher Says,” The Washington Post, July 26, 2012, http://seattletimes.com/html/nationworld/2018783144_humans27.html.
[x] James Montgomery Boice, “Notes on the Nephilim: The Giants of Old,” Lambert Dolphin’s Library, last accessed January 10, 2013, http://www.ldolphin.org/nephilim.html.
[xi] T. Shinn and Richard P. Whitley, Expository Science: Forms and Functions of Popularisation (Springer, NY: D. Reidel, 1985), 148.
[xii] Neil T. Anderson, The Bondage Breaker (Eugene, OR: Harvest House Publishers, 2006), 33.