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How do I find the number of child terms associated with a specific GO term?

How do I find the number of child terms associated with a specific GO term?


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I am trying to figure out how to find the number of child terms associated with a specific Gene Ontology (GO) term using QuickGO, without just counting the amount of terms in a list. For example when I want to find the number of child terms associated with the GO term 'heart development'.

I could just click on the tab 'Child Terms' and count, but what if it would be a very long list, how can I find the correct amount?

I assume there is some way to do this by going to Protein Annotation and applying a filter, but I do not know how to do this.

Any help?


I don't think it's possible to do this via QuickGO. You can, however, do it from GO's website, using their GOOSE tool. This offers an interface to the GO SQL database and lets you run queries. It also offers example searches, one of which ("Find descendants of the node 'nucleus'") can easily be modified to return what you are asking for:

SELECT COUNT(*) FROM term INNER JOIN graph_path ON (term.id=graph_path.term1_id) INNER JOIN term AS descendant ON (descendant.id=graph_path.term2_id) WHERE term.name='heart development' AND distance = 1 ;

In the query above, I modified the example and changed 'nucleus' to 'heart development' (GO:0007507) and changeddistance <> 0todistance = 1to make it list only direct descendants. Finally, I also changedSELECT DISTINCT descendant.acc, descendant.name, descendant.term_typeto simplySELECT COUNT(*)since all we are interested in is the number of descendants. If you also want their names, leave theSELECTline as is. That will show both the list of names and the total in the output.

The modified query shows us that this term has 30 descendants:


Tips for Parents of Preschoolers

You’re probably in the habit of measuring your preschooler’s growth by checking his or her height and weight. But how can you measure your child’s development in other areas, such as numbers and counting — early math skills?

Think about all the ways that numbers and counting are part of your child’s life! From soapy toes in the bathtub to “get ready-set-go!” in the yard, you are well positioned to observe and gather information about the early math skills your 3- to 4-year-old child is developing. The questions and tips that follow will help you understand what math awareness and skills your child should have — and how you can support his development.

Is your child developing age-appropriate numbers and counting skills?

It’s helpful to know what numbers and counting skills your child should be developing by age 3 or 4. Review the following list of milestones and note how your child is doing in each area. My child:

  • Is aware of — and curious about — how numbers and counting apply to his life and the world around him.
  • Can correctly count at least five objects.
  • Can point to places on a number line and count with 1-to-1 correspondence along the line (from left to right, right to left)
  • Understands that the written numeral “3” means three objects — and the same with numerals 1-5.
  • Can add and subtract small numbers of familiar objects. For example: “I have three cookies. You have two. How many do we have all together?”
  • Can put written numbers (numerals) from 1 to 5 in the correct order, small to large.
  • Can count from one to ten in the correct order.
  • Understands concepts of quantity (for example, “more” and “less”) and size (such as, “bigger” and “smaller”) and uses those terms correctly.

Encouraging numbers and counting skills at home

Now that you are aware of some of the basic math skills and concepts your preschooler should have, you can reinforce and build upon these skills. There are many ways you and your child can play with numbers and counting throughout the day. Here are some ideas to get you started:

  • Show your child how numbers and counting apply to everyday life. Use number words, point out numbers, and involve your child in counting activities as you go through your day. For example: Have your child help you measure ingredients for a recipe by measuring and counting the number of cups or spoonfuls. Talk about how things or amounts are more, less, bigger and smaller, and be sure to praise his efforts and his progress in math awareness.
  • Collect a variety of materials your child can use for hands-on counting. Old keys, plastic bottle caps, and buttons all work well. Collect them in a bag or jar and pick a time to count and re-count them again and again. (For added fun, offer guesses at the total number of items and see who comes the closest.)
  • Use items from around the house to experiment with addition, subtraction and “more” and “less” activities.
  • Read, tell stories, sing songs, and recite poems that include numbers and counting. Try to include books in which characters come and go as the story progresses.
  • Play simple board games that call on players to count spaces on the board, objects used in the game, and to recognize printed numerals or their representation (such as “dots on dice”).

Note: If your child has a regular babysitter or daycare provider, be sure to pass these tips along to the caregiver.

Promoting number and counting skills at preschool

The preschool classroom is filled with opportunities to learn and practice number and counting skills. Be sure to talk to your child’s teacher about structured teaching activities to develop skills in this area. To keep track of your child’s progress in early math skills, you’ll want to:

  • Ask your child’s teacher what early math lessons, games, and activities your child is exposed to and where your child is succeeding or struggling.
  • Find out what early math skills your child will need to master in ensure a smooth start of the kindergarten year
  • Look at the work and projects your child brings home from school. Look for numbers and counting themes and elements and discuss them together.
  • Encourage your child to talk about school and whether she finds numbers and counting interesting (or difficult).

Cause for concern? Where to turn for advice and assistance

Rest assured that “normal” development of beginning math skills doesn’t progress in exactly the same way for all preschoolers. However, you may want to seek help if your child:

  • Has difficulty with simple counting.
  • Doesn’t understand the one-to-one correspondence between number symbols and items/objects.
  • Doesn’t seem to understand or notice variations in size, patterns, or shapes.
  • Doesn’t see how math concepts exist in everyday life, even when examples are pointed out to him or her.
  • Dislikes and avoids activities and games that involve numbers and counting.


Kristin Stanberry is a writer and editor specializing in parenting, education, and consumer health/wellness issues. Her areas of expertise include learning disabilities and AD/HD, topics which she wrote about extensively for Schwab Learning and GreatSchools.


Social Security

Advance designation allows you to elect up to three individuals who could serve as a representative payee for you if the need ever arises.

We offer advance designation to capable adults and emancipated minors who are applying for or receiving Social Security benefits, Supplemental Security Income, or Special Veterans Benefits. If you become unable to manage, or direct others to manage, your benefits in the future, you will have peace of mind knowing that someone you trust may be appointed to manage your benefits for you. For more information, see Advance Designation.

The dollar amount used in calculating your monthly Social Security benefit if you attained age 62 or became disabled (or died) before 1978. The AME is determined by dividing the total earnings in the "computation years" by the number of months in those same years. See Your Retirement Benefit: How It's Figured (05-10070).

You will receive a letter of explanation whenever Social Security makes a decision regarding your eligibility for Social Security benefits or Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments. If you disagree with the decision, you have the right to appeal (ask us to review your case). If our decision was wrong, we’ll change it.

To receive Social Security benefits, Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments, or Medicare, you must complete and sign an application.

You can apply for retirement, disability, Medicare, SSI, and spouse’s benefits online at www.ssa.gov/applyonline online, in person at a local Social Security Office, or by telephone at 1-800-772-1213. Our TTY number is 1-800-325-0778.

The application form (SS-5) you need to complete to obtain a Social Security number. In some cases, you may need to complete the same application to receive a replacement card. For more information, see Get or Replace a Social Security Card.

An official religious record of your birth or baptism. In some situations, we can use a baptismal certificate to establish your age.

In initial computation, a worker's (wage earner's) base years for computing Social Security benefits are the years after 1950 up to the year before entitlement to retirement or disability insurance benefits. For a survivor's claim, the base years include the year of the worker's death.

When you’re eligible for retirement or disability benefits, the following people may also receive benefits on your record:

  • Spouse if he or she is at least 62 years old (or any age but caring for an entitled child of the deceased spouse under age 16 or disabled) or who is over age 16 and disabled before age 22.
  • Children if they are unmarried and under age 18, or under age 19 and a full-time elementary or secondary student.
  • Children age 18 or older but who were disabled before age 22.
  • Ex-spouses age 62 or older.

An official letter from Social Security that states the amount an individual receives each month in Social Security benefits and/or Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments. A benefit verification letter also shows proof that someone is not receiving benefits or is waiting for a decision.

Social Security pays five types of benefits:

  • Retirement
  • Disability
  • Spouse’s/dependent children
  • Survivors
  • Medicare

The retirement, disability, and survivor programs pay monthly benefits Medicare provides medical coverage.

Some benefits are reduced depending on when you begin receiving them.

Retirement benefits at age 62 through the month before your reach Full Retirement Age

We use the term "child" to include your biological child or any other child who can inherit your personal property under state law or who meets certain specific requirements under the Social Security Act, such as any of these:

  • A legally adopted child.
  • An equitably adopted child.
  • A stepchild.
  • A dependent grandchild or step-grandchild in your care.

Computation years are the years with highest earnings taken from the base years. We add total earnings for the computation years and divide by the number of months in those years to get the AME or the AIME. (We use your 35 highest years of earnings to compute your retirement benefits.)

An index prepared by the U. S. Department of Labor that charts the rise in costs for selected goods and services. This index is used to compute cost-of-living adjustments.

Previously called "Quarters of Coverage." As you work and pay Social Security taxes, you earn credits that count toward your eligibility for future Social Security benefits. You can earn a maximum of four credits each year. Most people need 40 credits to qualify for benefits. Younger people need fewer credits to qualify for disability or survivors benefits.

When you apply for Social Security, we decide if you will receive benefits. We send you an official letter explaining our decision and, if benefits are payable, we tell you the amount you will get each month.

Social Security benefits are increased by a certain percentage (depending on date of birth) if a person delays taking retirement benefits beyond their full retirement age.

The benefit increase stops after age 70, even if the person continues to delay taking benefits.

In most cases, people receive Social Security benefits and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) using direct deposit. Your money is sent electronically to an account in a financial institution. For more information, see Social Security Direct Deposit.

You can get disability benefits if all of these apply to you:

  • Are under full retirement age.
  • Have enough Social Security credits.
  • Have a severe medical impairment (physical or mental) that’s expected to prevent you from doing "substantial" work for a year or more, or have a condition that is expected to result in death.

Forms and papers such as birth certificates, marriage certificates, W-2 forms, tax returns, deeds, etc., submitted by individuals applying for benefits and services. We can accept only originals, or copies or extracts certified by the agency that has the original document.

You can start getting Social Security retirement benefits as early as age 62 if you are insured, but your benefit amount will be less than you would have gotten if you waited until your full retirement age.

If you take retirement benefits early, your benefit will remain permanently reduced, based on the number of months you received benefits before you reached full retirement age.

A chronological history of the amount of money you earned each year during your working lifetime. The credits you earned remain on your Social Security record even when you change jobs or have no earnings. You can see your earnings history with a personal my Social Security account.

The maximum amount of benefits payable to an entire family on any one worker’s record.

FICA stands for "Federal Insurance Contributions Act." It’s the tax withheld from your wages that funds the Social Security and Medicare programs.

The age at which a person may first become entitled to full or unreduced benefits based on age.

The age which you will be able to collect your full retirement benefit amount. The full retirement age is 66 if you were born from 1943 to 1954. The full retirement age increases gradually if you were born from 1955 to 1960, until it reaches 67. For anyone born 1960 or later, full retirement benefits are payable at age 67.

Workers and spouses in the year 2027.

Widows and widowers in the year 2029.

This increase affects the amount of the reduction for persons who begin receiving reduced benefits. To determine your full retirement age and the effect receiving benefits early could have, see our Retirement Age Calculator.

If you worked and earned enough Social Security credits to be eligible for retirement or disability benefits or for your dependents to be eligible for benefits due to your retirement, disability, or death, you have insured status. For more information, see Social Security Credits.

Refers to people admitted to the United States who are granted permanent authorization to work by the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) (formerly INS) or admitted to the United States on a temporary basis with USCIS (INS) authorization to work.

A chronological history of the amount of money you earned each year during your working lifetime. The credits you earned remain on your Social Security record even when you change jobs or have no earnings. You can view your lifetime earnings with a personal my Social Security account.

A one-time payment of $255 paid in addition to any monthly survivors benefits your family is eligible to receive. This amount is paid only to your widow/widower or minor children.

The maximum amount of earnings we can count in any calendar year when calculating your Social Security benefit.

A joint federal and state program that helps with medical costs for people with low incomes and limited resources.

Medicaid programs vary from state to state, but most health care costs are covered if you qualify for both Medicare and Medicaid. For more information, see Medicaid.gov

The federal health insurance program for:

  • People 65 years of age or older.
  • Certain younger people with disabilities.
  • People with permanent kidney failure with dialysis or a transplant, sometimes called ESRD (End-Stage Renal Disease).

This usually applies to retirement claims. In certain situations, you can choose the month in which you want your benefits to start.

The United States Department of Agriculture program that helps needy families buy food. For more information, see Nutrition Assistance Programs (05-10100).

The Social Security programs that provide monthly cash benefits to workers and their dependents when they retire, become disabled, or die.

If you applied for Social Security benefits before May 1, 1997, your payments usually are dated and delivered on the 3rd of the month following the month for which the payment is due. For example, payments for January are delivered on February 3rd.

If the 3rd of the month is a Saturday, Sunday, or federal holiday, your payments are dated and delivered on the first day before the 3rd of the month which is not a Saturday, Sunday, or federal holiday. For example, if the 3rd is a Saturday or Sunday, payments are delivered on the preceding Friday.

If you filed for Social Security benefits May 1, 1997, or later, you are assigned one of three payment days based on date of birth:

1st through 10th of the month

Second Wednesday of the month

11th through 20th of the month

Third Wednesday of the month

21st through end of the month

Fourth Wednesday of the month.

If your scheduled Wednesday payment day is a federal holiday, we'll send your payment on the preceding day that is not a federal legal holiday.

For a schedule of benefit payment dates, see our payment calendar.

SSI payments are usually dated and delivered on the first day of the month for which they are due. However, if the first falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or federal holiday, they are dated and delivered on the first day preceding the first of the month which is not a Saturday, Sunday, or federal holiday.

For a schedule of benefit payment dates, see our payment calendar.

The monthly amount payable if you are a retired worker who begins receiving benefits at full retirement age or if you're disabled and have never received a retirement benefit reduced for age.

The date you first contact us about filing for benefits. We may use this date to establish an earlier application date than when we receive your signed application.

Months beginning with the first month you're entitled to reduced benefits up to, but not including, the month in which you reach full retirement age. For more information, see Starting Your Retirement Benefits Early.

If you receive Social Security benefits or Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and become unable to handle your own financial affairs, we (after a careful investigation) appoint a relative, a friend, or an interested party to handle your Social Security matters on your behalf. If you are a beneficiary or a claimant who has attained age 18 or who is an emancipated minor, you also have the option to designate in advance up to three individuals who could serve as your payee should the need arise in the future.

Representative payees are required to maintain complete accounting records and periodically provide reports to Social Security. For more information, see Representative Payee Program.

The age which you will be able to collect your full retirement benefit amount. The full retirement age is 66 if you were born from 1943 to 1954. The full retirement age increases gradually if you were born from 1955 to 1960, until it reaches 67. For anyone born 1960 or later, full retirement benefits are payable at age 67.

For additional information on full retirement ages and benefit amounts, see:

The minimum age for retirement—age 62 for workers, and age 60 for widows or widowers. You can choose a reduced benefit anytime before you reach full retirement age.

If you receive monthly Social Security benefits before your full retirement age and work, your earnings from wages and/or self-employment cannot exceed a certain amount without reducing your monthly benefits. For more information, see www.ssa.gov/benefits/retirement/planner/whileworking.html.

Monthly benefits that you may be entitled to before the month you actually apply, if you meet the requirements.

Money that is payable to you starting at age 62, if you have enough Social Security credits. For more information, see Retirement Benefits.

Net earnings of $400 or more in a tax year for those who are self-employed (you operate a trade, business or profession, either individually or as a partner). For more information, see If You Are Self-Employed (05-10022).

Social Security is based on a simple concept: While you work, you pay taxes into the Social Security system, and when you retire or become disabled, you, your spouse, and your dependent children receive monthly benefits that are based on your reported earnings. Also, your survivors may be eligible to collect benefits when you die. For more information, see A "Snapshot" (05-10006).

Your nine-digit Social Security number is your first and continuous connection with Social Security. It helps us identify and accurately record your covered wages or self-employment earnings. We also use it to monitor your record once you start getting benefits. A Social Security number is important because you need it to get a job, collect Social Security benefits, and get some other government services.

For more information, visit our webpage Social Security number.

Many of our services are available online.

You can also call our toll-free telephone number, 1-800-772-1213, to use our interactive voice response system or to speak to a representative. Our TTY number is 1-800-325-0778. This toll-free telephone number service is available from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. Monday through Friday.

Our Social Security Office Locatorshows the address of your local office.

There is no charge for any of our services.

You are the spouse of the worker if:

  • You and the worker were married at the time you filed for benefits.
  • You would have the status of a husband or a wife for that person’s personal property if they had no will.
  • You went through a marriage ceremony in good faith, which would have been valid except for a legal impediment.

A federal supplemental income program funded by general tax revenues (not Social Security taxes). It helps aged, blind, and disabled people who have limited income and resources by providing monthly cash payments to meet basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter. For more information, see Supplemental Security Income (SSI).

Benefits based on your record (when you die) can be paid to your:

  • Widow/widower age 60 or older, 50 or older if disabled, or any age if caring for your child who is under age 16, or who was disabled before age 22.
  • Children, if they are unmarried and under age 18, under 19 but still in school, or 18 or older but they were disabled before age 22.
  • Parents, if you provided at least one-half of their support.

An ex-spouse could also be eligible for a widow/widower's benefit on your record.

A special one-time lump sum death payment of $255 may be made to your spouse or minor children. For more information, see Survivors Benefits.

A person who earns Social Security credits while working for wages or self-employment income. Sometimes referred to as the "Number Holder" or "Worker."

All payment for services performed for an employer. Wages do not have to be cash. The cash value of all compensation paid to an employee in any form other than cash is also considered wages, unless the form of payment is specifically not covered under the Social Security Act.


Signs and Symptoms in Children With Autism

Autism usually appears before a child is 3 years old. Some signs of autism may be evident as early as 10 to 12 months, and certainly by 18 months.

Varying widely, signs and symptoms in children with autism typically include:

  • Impaired communication skills
  • Difficulty making eye contact
  • Repetitive behaviors and activities such as arm flapping, head banging, or twirling an object over and over
  • Rigid behavior and difficulty with change and transitions
  • Narrow range of interests and activities

How do I find the number of child terms associated with a specific GO term? - Biology

Question: What's a variable?

Answer: A variable is an object, event, idea, feeling, time period, or any other type of category you are trying to measure. There are two types of variables-independent and dependent.

Question: What's an independent variable?

Answer: An independent variable is exactly what it sounds like. It is a variable that stands alone and isn't changed by the other variables you are trying to measure. For example, someone's age might be an independent variable. Other factors (such as what they eat, how much they go to school, how much television they watch) aren't going to change a person's age. In fact, when you are looking for some kind of relationship between variables you are trying to see if the independent variable causes some kind of change in the other variables, or dependent variables.

Question: What's a dependent variable?

Answer: Just like an independent variable, a dependent variable is exactly what it sounds like. It is something that depends on other factors. For example, a test score could be a dependent variable because it could change depending on several factors such as how much you studied, how much sleep you got the night before you took the test, or even how hungry you were when you took it. Usually when you are looking for a relationship between two things you are trying to find out what makes the dependent variable change the way it does.

Many people have trouble remembering which is the independent variable and which is the dependent variable. An easy way to remember is to insert the names of the two variables you are using in this sentence in they way that makes the most sense. Then you can figure out which is the independent variable and which is the dependent variable:

(Independent variable) causes a change in (Dependent Variable) and it isn't possible that (Dependent Variable) could cause a change in (Independent Variable).

For example:

(Time Spent Studying) causes a change in (Test Score) and it isn't possible that (Test Score) could cause a change in (Time Spent Studying).

We see that "Time Spent Studying" must be the independent variable and "Test Score" must be the dependent variable because the sentence doesn't make sense the other way around.


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Error Messages/Lockouts

Get My Payment says, “Please Try Again Later.” Why am I locked out? (updated February 10, 2021)

Your account has been locked for 24 hours. This occurred because:

  • Information you entered doesn’t match our records – for security reasons we limit each user to 3 failed attempts per 24-hour period or
  • You have already accessed the system the maximum number of times within 24 hours – we limit each user to 5 logins per day to manage system capacity.

The lockout will only release when the 24 hours have passed. Don’t contact the IRS for assistance with a lockout: IRS assistors can’t unlock your account.

Why am I receiving an error message when entering my address or tax information? (updated February 10, 2021)

If the information you enter to verify your identity in Get My Payment doesn’t match our records, you’ll receive an error message. To avoid this:

  • Double-check what the application is requesting.
  • Make sure what you enter is accurate.
  • Try entering your street address in a different way (for example: 123 N Main St instead of 123 North Main St.).
  • Use the U.S. Postal Service’s ZIP Lookup tool to look up the standard version of your address and enter it into Get My Payment exactly as it appears on file with the Postal Service.

Note: If you enter information that doesn’t match our records three times within 24 hours, you’ll be locked out of Get My Payment for security reasons. You’ll be able to access the application again after 24 hours. Don’t contact the IRS for assistance with a lockout: IRS assistors can’t unlock your account.


Contents

Genetics Edit

Long before Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species in 1858, animal breeders knew that patterns of behavior are somehow influenced by inheritance from parents. Studies of identical twins as compared to less-closely-related human beings, and of children brought up in adoptive homes, have helped scientists understand the influence of genetics on human behavior. The study of human behavioral genetics is still developing steadily with new methods such as genome-wide association studies. [5] [6]

Evolutionary psychology studies behavior as the product of natural selection, whereby both human behavior and psychology are shaped by our evolutionary past. According to this field, humans attempt to increase their social status as much as possible, which increases their chances of reproductive success. They may do this by fighting, amassing wealth, or helping others with their problems.

Social norms Edit

Social norms, the often unspoken rules of a group, shape not only our behaviors but also our attitudes. An individual’s behavior varies depending on the group(s) they are a part of, a characteristic of society that allows their norms to heavily impact society. Without social norms, human society would not function as it currently does. Humans would have to be more abstract in their behavior, as there would not be a pre-tested 'normal' standardized lifestyle, and individuals would have to make many more choices for themselves. The institutionalization of norms is, however, inherent in human society perhaps as a direct result of the desire to be accepted by others, which leads humans to manipulate their own behavior to 'fit in' with others. Depending on their nature and upon one's perspective, norms can impact different sections of society both positively (e.g. attending birthday celebrations, dressing warm in the winter) and negatively (e.g. racism, drug use).

Creativity Edit

Creativity is a fundamental human trait. It can be seen in tribes' adaptation of natural objects to make tools, and in the uniquely human pursuits of art and music. This creative impulse explains the constant change in fashion, technology, and food in modern society. People use creative endeavors, like art and literature, to distinguish themselves within their social group. They also use their creativity to make money and persuade others of the value of their ideas.

Religion and spirituality Edit

Another important aspect of human behavior is religion and spirituality. According to a Pew Research Center report, 54% of adults around the world state that religion is very important in their lives. [7] Religion plays a large role in the lives of many people around the world, and it affects their behavior towards others. [8] For example, one of the five pillars of Islam is zakat. This is the practice whereby Muslims who can afford to are required to donate 2.5% of their wealth to those in need. [9] Many religious people regularly attend services with other members of their religion. They may take part in religious rituals, and festivals like Diwali and Easter.

Attitude Edit

An attitude is an expression of favor or disfavor toward a person, place, thing, or event. [10] It alters between each individual, as everyone holds different attitudes towards different things. A main factor that determines attitude is likes and dislikes: the more one likes something or someone, the more one is willing to open up and accept what they have to offer one dislikes something, they are more likely to get defensive and shut down.

An example of how one's attitude affects one's human behavior could be as simple as taking a child to the park or to the doctor. Children know they have fun at the park so their attitude becomes willing and positive, but when a doctor is mentioned, they shut down and become upset with the thought of pain. Attitudes can sculpt personalities and the way people view who we are. People with similar attitudes tend to stick together as interests and hobbies are common. This does not mean that people with different attitudes do not interact, the fact is they do. What it means is that specific attitudes can bring people together (e.g., religious groups). The way a human behaves depends a lot on how they look at the situation and what they expect to gain from it. [11]

Weather and climate Edit

The weather and climate have a significant influence on human behavior. The average temperature of a country affects its traditions and people's everyday routines. For example, Spain was once a primarily agrarian country, with much of its labour force working in the fields. Spaniards developed the tradition of the siesta, an after-lunch nap, to cope with the intense midday heat. The siesta persists despite the increased use of air conditioning and the move from farming to office jobs. However, it is less common today than in the past. [12] Norway is a northern country with cold average temperatures and short hours of daylight in winter. This has shaped its lunchtime habits. Norwegians have a fixed half an hour lunch break. This enables them to go home earlier, with many leaving work at three o'clock in the afternoon. This allows them to make the most of the remaining daylight. [13] There is a correlation between higher temperatures and increased levels of violent crime. There are a number of theories for why this is. One theory is that people are more inclined to go outside during warmer weather, and this increases the number of opportunities for criminals. Another is that high temperatures cause a physiological response that increases people's irritability, and therefore their likeliness to escalate perceived slights into violence. [14] [15] There is some research detailing that changes in the weather can affect the behavior of children. One study suggests that classroom misbehavior peaked during the period of "calm before the storm." [16]


How is SLI diagnosed?

If a doctor, teacher, or parent suspects that a child has SLI, a speech-language pathologist (a professional trained to assess and treat people with speech or language problems) can evaluate the child’s language skills. The type of evaluation depends on the child's age and the concerns that led to the evaluation. In general, an evaluation includes:

  • Direct observation of the child.
  • Interviews and questionnaires completed by parents and/or teachers.
  • Assessments of the child’s learning ability.
  • Standardized tests of current language performance.

These tools allow the speech-language pathologist to compare the child's language skills to those of same-age peers, identify specific difficulties, and plan for potential treatment targets.


Treatment

To provide appropriate treatment for co-occurring disorders, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) recommends an integrated treatment approach. Integrated treatment involves coordinating substance-abuse and mental health interventions, rather than treating each disorder separately without consideration for the other.

Integrated treatment often involves forms of behavioral treatment, such as cognitive behavioral therapy or dialectical behavior therapy, that can help improve coping skills and reduce maladaptive behaviors. These may be used in combination with medication. Treatment may also entail a collaboration between clinicians and organizations that offer support to handle issues related to housing, health, and work.

As a part of programs that treat co-occurring disorders, psychoeducational classes can help increase awareness of the symptoms of disorders and the relationship between mental disorders and substance abuse. Relapse-prevention education can help clients become aware of cues that make them more likely to abuse substances and help them develop alternative responses.

Dual-recovery groups located on treatment sites or offsite can also play a role in recovery by offering a supportive forum for the discussion of psychiatric symptoms, medication, substance-related impulses, and coping strategies.


Watch the video: NEXYIU Webinar Apresentação do projeto do cliente,Cartão Nexyiu, na descrição (November 2022).