Renal Calculus

Photo of a 1 cm diameter kidney stone

What is kidney stone

Kidney stone is a very common health problem in humans and some mammalian species. It is popularly known as kidney stone. It is caused by various factors related to diet, urinary system malfunction or genetic predisposition.


The stone forms in the kidneys and bladder from the accumulation of mineral salts in the body. In addition to mineral salts, the accumulation of other substances may cause the calculation such as uric acid and calcium oxalate. The calculation takes on a crystal shape and may have varying sizes and shapes. Some calculations are the size of a grain of sand, others may reach the size of an orange.

Often a person's kidney produces microscopic stones that are expelled through the urine without causing pain. However, in other cases, the stone can cause severe pain in the kidney region. Often the pain may come with nausea and vomiting. If the stone comes out of the kidneys, reaching the urinary tract, pain and discomfort when urinating may be common. When a person experiences these symptoms, it is best to immediately seek out a nephrologist or urologist. In some cases, surgery is urgently needed. In addition to surgery, lithotripsy is required in some situations. This procedure consists of breaking the stone using shock waves, allowing the small pieces to be eliminated in the urine.


Doctors point out several causes for the formation of kidney stones. Chief among these is low fluid intake, associated with a diet made up of many dairy products (milk, yoghurts, cheeses) that are high in calcium. Therefore, it is extremely important to drink two to three liters of water per day. However, other factors can lead to the formation of kidney stones such as genetic inheritance, problems with the functioning of the urinary system, infections or other types of diseases.

Other useful information:

- If urination shows signs of blood it may be due to a cut caused by kidney stones. Get medical attention immediately.

- In addition to lithotripsy and surgery, some doctors use a procedure that involves introducing an instrument (very small barrel) into the urinary tract. This instrument is capable of eliminating the calculations, discarding the traditional surgical process.

IMPORTANT: The information on this page is only a source for research and school work. Therefore, they should not be used for medical advice. To do so, see a doctor for guidance and proper treatment.