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I'm not entirely sure how normal this is, but since I was a child, I've been able to produce myself voluntarily a "chill" sensation that seems to start on my head and traverse the rest of my body, being least intense in the feet. Looking around the internet and forums, looks like other people but not everybody also describe this ability. However, unlike other people's reports, I don't see "goose bumps" on my skin, at least there aren't any visibly; it's just the sensation.
Does anybody know if there are any relevant studies or knowledge out there about "voluntary goose bumps"? Is there even a proper name for that?
Recent studies prove that this involuntary phenomenon must be untrue. Obviously this is false, in order for research like this to take place people need to spend money. It would be interesting if we could create a crowd sourcing account maybe on kick starter to find ways to bring money into the research. I wish I had more information for you, I've been able to do it as long as. When you go to the dentist, just curious, you don't happen to have two bones underneath your tongue that is an anomaly as well? I've been trying to think of correlations for years. I can get the medical terms, if you like. Find me on Facebook Chris Azzy
Special Exhibit Volunteers
Special Exhibit volunteers serve as host for the run of the Art of the Brick exhibit. As a Guest Services volunteer you will greet and direct guest, assist inside the exhibit, and educate guest about the Science of the Brick through an interactive area. We are seeking enthusiastic individuals with excellent communication skills.
Applicants must be at least 16 years of age. Must commit to serving 4 hours/week for the run of the exhibit. Training provided.
Guest Services Air & Space Host Volunteers
Guest Services Air and Space Host Volunteers will comprise the Guest Services Air and Space Volunteer Program and serve in the Sketch Air and Space Gallery, the California Story exhibit and in the Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion. Volunteers will welcome guests and provide them with information and facts about displayed air and space artifacts, including Space Shuttle Endeavour. They will engage guests and be readily available to provide assistance and answer questions.
Applicants must be at least 18 years of age. Must commit to serving 4 hours/week for a minimum of 6 months.
Air & Space Host Volunteer
Department: Guest Services
Reports to: Guest Services Management Team
Time Commitment: Four hours per week for a six month period.
Summary of Position:
Air and Space Volunteers welcome guests, provide information and facts about displayed air and space artifacts, including space shuttle Endeavour. Volunteers engage guests and are readily available to provide assistance and answer questions. Volunteers serve in the SKETCH Air & Space Gallery, Endeavour Together Gallery, and the Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion.
- Deliver high quality, guest friendly service.
- Comfortable memorizing and presenting material.
- Remain polite, courteous and helpful at all times.
- Provide accurate information about current and upcoming Science Center and IMAX Theater offerings as released.
- Assist with exhibit line queuing.
- Communicate guest issues or operational concerns to Volunteer Lead or any available Guest Services Supervisor in timely manner.
- Must be reliable and possess the ability and willingness to greet guests in a friendly, professional manner.
- Exercise active listening skills and positive body language through smiling, sustaining eye contact, keeping good posture and speaking clearly with guests.
- Work cooperatively with staff and volunteers.
- Perform other duties as required.
- Must be at least 18 years of age.
- Strong public speaking skills.
- Excellent communications skills, demonstrate superior articulation.
- Must be comfortable and exhibit enthusiasm relating to school children and guests.
- Highly motivated with a strong desire to provide exceptional customer service.
- Must attend Guest Services Training and area-specific required trainings.
- Must demonstrate ability to act professionally and communicate well with others.
- Effective interpersonal skills with diverse audiences.
- Bilingual fluency is a plus.
Certified Diver Volunteers
Certified Diver Volunteers assist staff with the daily maintenance of our 188,000 gallon kelp tank, feed aquatic exhibit animals and participating in dive shows for guests. The required pre-requisites include a minimum level of Rescue Diver certification from a nationally recognized scuba certification training agency, proof of at least 50 logged dives, current certifications in CPR/FA/O2/AED, the ability to pass a confined water swim and scuba evaluation, and the ability to pass a dive medical examination.
Dive certifications are required before you apply. All associated costs to be incurred by prospective volunteer. Applicants must be at least 18 years of age. Must commit to serving an average of 16 hours per month, or a minimum of 48 hours per quarter for a 1 year period.
Certified Diver Volunteer
Department: Living Collections
Reports to: Dive Safety Officer, Assistant Dive Safety Officer, Volunteer Coordinator
Time Commitment: 16 hours per month on average, or a minimum of 48 hours per quarter for at least 1 year.
Summary of Position:
The Living Collections Dive Volunteer will assist in the daily diving operations of the Living Collections department. Duties will involve a variety of tasks and responsibilities including, but not limited to feeding exhibit animals, cleaning and maintaining the exhibits, public dive show presentations, filling scuba cylinders, cleaning and maintaining the institutions diving equipment, participating in required trainings, and following the diving standards that are set forth in the California Science Center Foundation’s Diving Safety Manual. Due to the nature of the work, qualified candidates will possess the experience and skills necessary to complete daily tasks in a safe and healthful manner.
- Must be 18 years of age
- Must have reached the Rescue Diver certification level of training from a nationally recognized scuba training agency
- Must have a minimum of 50 dives logged
- Must provide proof of current CPR/FA/O2/AED certifications
- Must be able to commit to an average of 16 hours per month, or a minimum of 48 hours per quarter (in 4 hour increments) for at least 1 year
- Ability to lift up to 60 lbs.
- Ability to pass the confined water swim and scuba evaluation
- Ability to pass a diving medical examination in accordance with Cal-OSHA standards for diving
- Must meet approval of Dive Safety Officer and Dive Control board.
- Must demonstrate an appropriate and positive manner of behavior and communication skills with all persons at all times, including guests, staff, vendors, and other volunteers.
- Must be willing to work in environments that may be characterized by the following: wet surfaces and walkways, elevated platforms, vertical ladders, stairs, small boats, extended bottom times in warm and cold water, diving in open ocean conditions, working around high pressure air and oxygen cylinders, and hazardous marine life
- Follow strict safety guidelines set forth by the Dive Safety Officer.
- Help maintain the California Science Center’s Kelp Tank (daily cleaning).
- Assist in the preparation of diets and feeding of animal collection and feed fish in the Kelp Tank.
- Participate in dive shows for guests, sometimes on microphone.
- Assist in the cleaning of on and off exhibit areas and equipment.
- Help staff observe and record behavior of animals.
- Assist in the training and behavioral enrichment of living collections.
- Record all dives accurately and diligently in accordance with AAUS and CSCF guidelines.
- Clean and maintain all dive gear.
- Assist with other routine duties in the Living Collections department as needed and assigned.
This job description is by no means an exhaustive list of all responsibilities, skills, duties, requirements, efforts, or working conditions associated with the job. Management reserves the right to revise the job or to require that other or different tasks be performed when circumstances change (e.g. emergencies, changes in personnel, workload, rush jobs, or technological developments).
Discovery Room Volunteers
Discovery Room Volunteers assist staff in providing interactive activities for children 7 and younger accompanied by their parents/teachers. Activities include crafts, storytelling, interaction with small animals and creative play. Each activity is designed to introduce young children to age-appropriate science themes that mirror the themes carried out in the main exhibit galleries.
Applicants must be at least 16 years of age. Must commit to serving 4 hours/week for a minimum of 6 months.
SECTION B (For candidates in Ghana only)
WAEC Syllabus For Biology | A. Introducing Biology
1. Biology as a science of life
2. Procedure for biological work
4. Body symmetry, sectioning and orientation
The meaning of biology. Candidates must be able to differentiate between a living thing and an organism. The two major branches of biology: Botany and zoology specialized areas: bacteriology, molecular biology, histology, cell biology, ecology etc.
Description of skills required by biologists in their work. The scientific method: Identifying the problem, defining the problem, hypothesizing, experimenting, recording, analyzing and concluding. Description of following steps for writing report on biological experiment or investigation: Aim, hypothesis/ scientific framework, materials/ drawing of set-up, method, results/ observation, discussion and conclusion.
Application of biology to everyday life. Careers associated with the study of biology.
Description of the following terms : (i) Body symmetry (bilateral and radial) (ii) Sectioning: longitudinal and transverse and vertical (iii) Body orientation of specimen: anterior, posterior, lateral, dorsal and ventral views). Distinction between (i) posterior and anterior views
(ii) dorsal and ventral views (iii) transverse and longitudinal section
Examination of simple light, compound light and stereoscopic light microscopes and identification of the various parts.
Handling and caring for microscopes. Use of the light microscope to observe prepared slides. Techniques involved in the preparation of temporary slides of animal and plant cells. Mounting varieties of specialized eukaryotic cells. Drawing of cells as seen under the microscope.
Resolution and magnification of microscope. Determination of magnification of drawings. Measuring lengths using compound light microscope. Electron microscope should be mentioned
Appropriate headings for biological drawings. Magnification/ size of biological drawings. Quality of biological drawings e.g. clarity of lines, neatness of labels, labels of biological drawings
WAEC Syllabus For Biology | B. Cell Biology
1. Movement of substances into and out of cells: Endocytosis and Exocytosis
3. DNA structure and replication, RNA transcription.
Description of the process of protein synthesis. The roles of m-RNA, t-RNA, and r-RNA and ribosomes in protein synthesis must be emphasized. Importance of protein synthesis. Examples of proteins synthesized by humans.
Explanation of the of the term cell cycle. Phases of the cell cycle [Interphase: G + S + G2 phases, Mitosis: M phase ( karyokinesis and cytokinesis)]. The processes of mitosis and meiosis and their importance. Preparation of a squash of onion root tip and observing stages of meiosis under the microscope. Observing stages of meiosis in plant and animal cells (Permanent slides may be used)
WAEC Syllabus For Biology | C. Life Processes in Living Things
1. Amoeba, Paramecium, and Euglena
External structure and life processes of Amoeba, Paramecium, and Euglena. Mounting of Paramecium and Euglena under the compound light microscope.
Structure of Spirogyra and Rhizopus. Nutrition and reproduction of Spirogyra and Rhizopus. Identification of stages of conjugation of Spirogyra.
Structure of mosses (Brachymenium and Funaria) and ferns (Nephrolepis, ( Platycerium, Phymatodes). Description of external features of mosses and ferns. Nutrition and reproduction in mosses. Reproduction in ferns
WAEC Syllabus For Biology | D. Diversity of Living Things
1. Characteristics of some of the orders of Class Insecta
2. Identification of organisms using biological keys
Orders of Class Insecta (Odonata Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Dictyoptera, and Neuroptera)
WAEC Syllabus For Biology | E. Interactions in Nature Soil
Identification of organisms using numbered and dichotomous keys. Construction of identification keys
F. Mammalian Anatomy and Physiology
1. Dissection of a small mammal
2. Transport: Structure of the mammalian heart.
(b) Skeletal tissues 5. Reproduction (a) Secondary sexual characteristics
Identification of organisms using numbered and dichotomous keys. Construction of identification keys.
Identification of mineral salts (Ca2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mg2+, K+, SO4 -, NO3 -, PO4 -) in a soil sample. Soil reclamation.
The arrangement of internal organs of mammals. Functions of the internal organs. Candidates should be able to cut open a chloroformed mammal (guinea pig, rat, mouse and rabbit) and draw the internal organs.
Mechanism of the heartbeat: excitation and contractions (SAN, AVN, Purkinge tissue)
Determination of respiratory quotient (RQ) of different substrates. Explanation of the significance of RQ.
Types of muscle (Smooth, striated and cardiac muscles). Description of how muscles bring about movement. Explanation of sliding filament model of muscle contraction.
Description of the structure of skeletal tissues( Bones and cartilage).
Physical changes that occur in males and females during puberty. The role of hormones in the development of secondary sexual
characteristics in humans.
Meaning of antenatal care. Antenatal visits requirements. Nutrition and diet. Exercise during pregnancy. Benefits of the use of natural products by mother and child.
WAEC Syllabus For Biology | G. Plant Structure and Physiology
1. Morphology of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants.
3. Reproduction: Floral formula
External features of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Functions of roots, stems and leaves of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Differences between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Modifications of roots, stems and leaves.
Biological principles underlying guttation.
H. Humans and their Environment
1. Integrated water resources management.
(b) Community health (c) First Aid
Determination and writing of the floral formulae of the following flowers: Flamboyant (Delonix), Pride of Barbados (Caesalpinia) and Rattle box (Crotalaria). Floral diagrams are not required.
Description of the integrated water resources management (IWRM). Explanation of how IWRM can reduce undesirable change in the environment.
Definition of terms: health, hygiene, and sanitation. Means of achieving personal cleanliness/ hygiene.
Explanation of the term drug abuse. Consequences of drug abuse.
Importance of town planning and its effects on health of the community.
Explanation of the term First Aid. Different methods of administering First Aid.
WAEC Syllabus For Biology | I. Evolution
Recombinant DNA Technology
Explanation of the term Recombinant DNA Technology and state its application
1. Biology and water industry
(b) Identification of polluted water
(c) Waste water treatment
2. Biology and fishing industry
3. Biology and food industry: Food additives
4. Biology and agriculture
6. Biological fuel generation manufacture of food such as cheese, yoghurt, kenkey, bread and butter. The role of microorganisms in the production of alcoholic drinks and organic acids. The role of microorganisms in pharmaceutical, tanning and mining industries.
Explanation of the need for new sources of energy. The use of biogas, use of green crops to produce ethanol, the generation of hydrogen gas from chloroplasts should be mentioned
Candidates should carry out experiments to test water samples for bacterial contamination.
The use of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) in the measurement of the level of organic pollution in water.
Description of biological processes of purifying sewage. Cesspit activated sludge process should be mentioned.
Explanation of why fish is an efficient converter of plankton into flesh. Description of ways of conserving fish stocks in water bodies.
Importance of fish farming. Advantages and disadvantages of fish farming.
Explanation of the term food additives. Identification of the categories of food additives (Naturally occurring and artificial food additives). Health implications in the use of food additives.
Explanation of the biological principles by which fertilizer, pesticides, selective breeding, resistance to disease and irrigation can respectively lead to successful agriculture.
Explanation of the concept of biotechnology. The use of micro-organisms in the
Communication is a critical soft skill. No matter what your job is, you will have to interact with employers, colleagues, and/or clients. You might have to engage with people in person, on the phone, via email, or a combination of all three.
Written and Verbal Communication
Employers look for job candidates with strong written and oral communication skills. They want to hire people who can speak and write clearly, accurately, and professionally.
You will probably also have to do some writing, whether that involves making reports, creating signage, filling out records, or something else. Broadly speaking, communication skills break down into either written or oral skills, although there are areas of overlap, such as email. Good communication must be accurate, easy to understand, and appropriate.
Speaking and Correspondence
That means employing tactful, professional speech and correspondence, and it also means creating well-crafted writing in the correct format. Appropriate communication might mean very different things for different positions, and good communicators know which standards apply to which context. While it’s true that communication is much more important in some jobs than others, it is always a factor to some degree.
Related Skills: Administrative, Advising, Being Artistic / Creative, Business Storytelling, Coaching Individuals, Collaboration, Communication, Conducting Meetings, Conflict Resolution, Confronting Others, Consultation, Counseling, Customer Service, Demonstrations, Dispensing Information, Displaying Ideas, Editing, Expression of Feelings, Fundraising, Handling Complaints, Human Resources, Interpersonal, Interviews, Language Translation, Listening, Monetary Collection, Negotiation, Networking, Nonverbal Communication, Oration, Personal Interaction, Preparing Written Documents, Proposals, Proposal Writing, Publications, Public Relations, Public Speaking, Questioning Others, Reading Volumes, Recommendations, Reporting, Report Writing, Screening Calls, Sketching, Training, Updating Files.
Concept in Action
Watch this Discovery Channel video on thermoregulation to see illustrations of the process in a variety of animals.
Animals conserve or dissipate heat in a variety of ways. Endothermic animals have some form of insulation. They have fur, fat, or feathers. Animals with thick fur or feathers create an insulating layer of air between their skin and internal organs. Polar bears and seals live and swim in a subfreezing environment and yet maintain a constant, warm, body temperature. The arctic fox, for example, uses its fluffy tail as extra insulation when it curls up to sleep in cold weather. Mammals can increase body heat production by shivering, which is an involuntary increase in muscle activity. In addition, arrector pili muscles can contract causing individual hairs to stand up when the individual is cold. This increases the insulating effect of the hair. Humans retain this reaction, which does not have the intended effect on our relatively hairless bodies it causes “goose bumps” instead. Mammals use layers of fat as insulation also. Loss of significant amounts of body fat will compromise an individual’s ability to conserve heat.
Ectotherms and endotherms use their circulatory systems to help maintain body temperature. Vasodilation, the opening up of arteries to the skin by relaxation of their smooth muscles, brings more blood and heat to the body surface, facilitating radiation and evaporative heat loss, cooling the body. Vasoconstriction, the narrowing of blood vessels to the skin by contraction of their smooth muscles, reduces blood flow in peripheral blood vessels, forcing blood toward the core and vital organs, conserving heat. Some animals have adaptions to their circulatory system that enable them to transfer heat from arteries to veins that are flowing next to each other, warming blood returning to the heart. This is called a countercurrent heat exchange it prevents the cold venous blood from cooling the heart and other internal organs. The countercurrent adaptation is found in dolphins, sharks, bony fish, bees, and hummingbirds.
Some ectothermic animals use changes in their behavior to help regulate body temperature. They simply seek cooler areas during the hottest part of the day in the desert to keep from getting too warm. The same animals may climb onto rocks in the evening to capture heat on a cold desert night before entering their burrows.
Thermoregulation is coordinated by the nervous system (Figure 11.2). The processes of temperature control are centered in the hypothalamus of the advanced animal brain. The hypothalamus maintains the set point for body temperature through reflexes that cause vasodilation or vasoconstriction and shivering or sweating. The sympathetic nervous system under control of the hypothalamus directs the responses that effect the changes in temperature loss or gain that return the body to the set point. The set point may be adjusted in some instances. During an infection, compounds called pyrogens are produced and circulate to the hypothalamus resetting the thermostat to a higher value. This allows the body’s temperature to increase to a new homeostatic equilibrium point in what is commonly called a fever. The increase in body heat makes the body less optimal for bacterial growth and increases the activities of cells so they are better able to fight the infection.
When bacteria are destroyed by leukocytes, pyrogens are released into the blood. Pyrogens reset the body’s thermostat to a higher temperature, resulting in fever. How might pyrogens cause the body temperature to rise?
<!–Pyrogens increase body temperature by causing the blood vessels to constrict, inducing shivering, and stopping sweat glands from secreting fluid.–>
How have daoists engaged with science?
Many of the stranger claims of daoism are relatively unexplored by science. The western world has barely discovered meditation.
There's also the issue of consciousness and science. There's something called the hard problem of consciousness which in really short is about figuring out how qualia exists, and if it's possible to figure it out with the scientific model alone. Given how much of daoism is based on internal states and thoughts some more consensus on that it probably needed for a full picture.
I think the problem isn't science yes or science no, the problem is how. Science was a part of the civilization since we started to make tools, homes, agriculture. In fact, to select the better seeds and animals for produce plants or animals that can be useful we make genetical manipulation, since the first time we cultivate oranges to modern DNA modifications. The problem is how is it used, if we want to have better crops for a better living, what's the problem? The problem is when we use the modifications to make crops resist some pesticides that kills other species, monocultive, desertification, etc
As consumism, we always consumed something, it is impossible to stop consuming because we have to eat, drink water, get warm, be health. The problem is not to consume or not, because it is impossible, the problem is how we consume.
Personally, I’m looking forward to seeing more development in quantum mechanics. This area of physics seems to have much in common with the TTC and Taoism in general.
Daoism is in tension with science since science is a tool not only for understanding nature but also for mastering it through the development of technology. The Dao advocates living in harmony with the course of nature while science is constantly interrupting and altering the course of nature. That said, I would argue that the Daoist sage is responsive to the findings of science especially in regard to climate change and the pleas of scientists to be good stewards of the earth. For suggestions on authors who have Daoist commitments backing science in a rigorous philosophical context, PM me.
R.G.H. Siu wrote a book called The Tao of Science back in 1957. It's written from the perspective of a manager of research scientists, which he was. I'm not sure it will answer your question(s) directly. The book is more of a philosophy of science, and my notes indicate that he doesn't mention Taoism specifically until around pg. 75. Still, I found it worth the read—especially since I bought it for just over $3 USD on eBay.
Then there is a book called The Tao of Physics by Fritjof Capra. I remember enjoying his descriptions of the various forms of Eastern philosophies and religions, but eventually I lost interest when he got into the technical details of modern physics. Those sections would have been more appropriate for me when I took modern physics in college. Anyway, this book might answer your questions more specifically, depending upon how deep a dive you want to go.
Ah, my favorite topic, great answers already. Let me just add this: Science is a wonderful human endeavor. It is willing to throw every assumption over board, if it's proven to be untrue. That's more than can be said for 99% of all other human activities. But science is done by human beings who are products of their time. Nowadays, science works by going into detail.
In a way, reality (the Tao) is a feedback machine. No matter what question you ask, you get an answer. Sometimes you get contradictory or confusing answers. Tells you all about the validity of the question. What's the answer to the question: "Why doesn't Santa Claus fall off the edge of the world when he goes north?" We need to be open to the possibility that all of our questions are silly. They are manifestations of unconscious beliefs. We asked "what is a stone made of?" and got more and more and more answers until we reached a level that makes us wonder if the question makes sense. If a thing can even exist "by itself". Quantum Physics tells us: no. Not even a rainbow exists by itself. It requires an observer.
Today's science is highly compartmentalized, competitive and lost infinitely deeply in the details of it's own questions. Not neccesarily a bad thing. It's how it is. Unfortunately, it gives everyday Joe the impression that the truth always is completely incomprehensible and just doesn't fit into a single human brain. That's too bad.
And it leaves out an important observation science has made already en-passant: Reality creates fractal structures. Self-contained patterns. The truth is contained in everything and especially everyone. Reality is looking at itself through a lens. The Tao Te Ching is all about this fundamental truth, which makes it a highly efficient mindset, a highly efficient "intuition of reality" no matter what you do. Whether it's science or peeling potatoes. Yes, we can build the next particle collider to answer yet another detailed question. But what are we going to do with the new-found knowledge? That's the important question.
Any relevant knowledge/studies about voluntary goose bumps - Biology
Critical reflection enables humans to come to an awareness of how ideologies shape beliefs and practices that justify and maintain global economic and political inequity, explaining how subjugated people get convinced to embrace dominant ideologies as always being in their own best interests. Cultural change and adjustment is imminent in Africa as the waves of globalization sweep through, and science teachers need to develop correct frames of thinking to make sense of science teaching and learning. Serving and prospective teachers need to construct methods and purposes which reflect their own lived experiences and rationales for professionalism. This paper reports on a research study that sought to demystify western science through critical reflection, encouraging developing country cultures to use the science as their own tool for cultural progressiveness. It discusses the value of engagement by science educators and learners from non-western backgrounds in serious intellectual dialogues concerning their classroom practice on one hand, and their own feelings and thoughts about this practice gained from previous learnings and experiences, on the other. The paper draws from a qualitative case study carried out in a high school biology class in Zimbabwe. Insights from this study underscore the gains to science teachers and learners who engage themselves in self-initiated personal and methodological reflection on their pedagogical encounters. The microcosm of learnings from such reflection should promote transferrable learning to address short and long term life goals including personal welfare, ambition, heritage, and destinies of future generations.
Today’s average non-western learners in developing countries are confronted by social and environmental situations that are becoming increasingly complex compared to their western counterparts. Although non-western nations such as Zimbabwe get exposed to a variety of western and global influences from time to time, sections still maintain largely their traditional cultural outlook that, viewed through the lenses of pro-western civilization, is regarded as ‘backward’. Not only that, even in the eyes of impartial judges and some Africans themselves, the African culture is indeed backward because it has failed to produce endogenous sustainable and competitive solutions to basic human development challenges so crucial for survival in modern times 1 , thus inviting renewed calls for the continent’s re-colonisation 2 .
While visibly embracing and enjoying the attractive and irresistible products of western science and technology, some influential sections of Zimbabwean society still strongly advocate for the perpetuation of traditional ways of living, fearing becoming consumed into powerful alien cultures. It is, however, debatable if such advocacy is a sincere push for uplifting living standards of the common citizens rather than for personal self-fulfilment. This puts the helpless citizens in buffer zones between tradition and westernization. For instance, a good number of primary and secondary school students and teachers in remote areas have a taste of high-tech exposure through operating electronic gadgets, thanks to affordability of gadgets and donations. Such students and their teachers live in two worlds, their home connected to tradition, and their school and workplaces connected to western culture, incorporating science, computers and technology. It has been observed that some Asian countries have successfully blended their cultures with western science and technology without necessarily becoming totally westernized overnight, demonstrating that energies spent pushing back westernization could be diverted to finding worthwhile compromises, adjustments, and adaptations. Because western science is deemed the best global tool for human development, African systems of thought are considered unscientific and non-progressive.
When teaching students from modern African backgrounds (cultural border-crossers) the question is asked, do teachers reflect fully on both the opportunities and threats of being in such a scenario? Or are the teachers themselves victims of the very same problem? It is suggested that critical reflection and negotiation of socialization processes is crucial for moulding citizens who have the ability to influence their short and long term futures locally in the face of unprecedented social change globally, and the science classroom is a fitting starting point. Globalization and the virtual melting of borders make it very difficult to maintain a pure untainted system of traditional thinking and practice, particularly if the system trivializes science and the scientific method, and confers less benefits compared to its growing competitor.
An epistemology of education such as critical constructivism offers educators a lens with which to view and reflect on their own classroom practice, with the ultimate aim of improving the process and maximizing gains for the learners. Constructivists contend that scientific knowledge itself is imperfect and imperfectable 3 . Knowledge (including science) is tentative, and ways of constructing knowledge or inquiring about it need not be restrictive. The learner's ability in negotiating for meaning of phenomena is shaped by their cultural background and experiences. An individual's culture influences the individual's interpretation of their surroundings and their notion of reality and truth 4 .
But students learn and master science not in exclusion to their other aspects of life, they integrate it into their social and emotional activities and life encounters. 5 advocate for a critical science education, one that not only prepares young people to be ". well-informed and discerning personal users of science in their daily lives", but also one that ". empower(s) students of science, through critical reflective thinking, to understand the enculturating nature of the science curriculum framework governing (and perhaps unduly restraining) their learning and their agency as learners." Students must be rid of the hidden dangers of scientism in this era where science is gradually being thought of as "imperfect knowledge" 3 . Science does not guarantee solutions to threats of war and conflicts, cybercrimes, cultural degeneration, fraud and corruption, over-individualization, and general irresponsibility 6 .
1.1. Critical Reflection
Teacher critical reflection in the learning, teaching and action research domain is important in today’s fractured but changing world. Teachers enrich their experience gradually and incrementally, and in the process pass the skills of reflection to their learners. At best, critical reflection and creative capability enhance transformational and lifelong learning skills, such as complex problem solving, communication, collaboration, vision building, and lifelong trans-generational action learning 7 . Critical self-reflection is the dimension involving questioning one's own assumptions, presuppositions, and perspectives allowing individuals to reassess or alter existing life structures. Among students, critical self-reflection is an opportunity to retreat summarily from their routine learning experiences and engage in deeper and more meaningful learning, reflecting seriously on the effect and source of their own assumptions, positioning, feelings, and behaviour 7 . High school leads to university for a sizeable number of these students, who will need to reflect on challenges such as moving from instructor-based learning to a more self-directed, independent learning style, and negotiating a transition to deep learning as a pre-requisite for academic achievement 7 . This is the ideal model for life and continuity of life among humans.
The central focus of this research study was to contribute to the attainment of quality goal-directed secondary school science teacher education in non-western developing Zimbabwe. Serving science teachers have a diversity of professional qualifications, orientations and motivations. This is in the light of a paucity of deliberate staff development programs or other efforts for such teachers to share challenges, experiences and aspirations. Behind this diversity lie some differences in teachers' understanding of learning theory and, subsequently, differences in their perceptions and practices of teaching. This paper addresses two questions:
1.What indications are there of internal dialogue and self-critiquing among secondary school science teachers in Zimbabwe?
2.How do the teachers and their students perceive the learning environment in their science classes in terms of personal relevance of subject matter and the practice of student negotiation?
1.2. Western Science for Non-Western Learners
8 observes that few attempts have been made in the research relating to concept development in adolescent students "to understand how a non-western student might better learn science, a discipline which has been largely imported from foreign cultures" 8 . Non-western cultures have their own languages, traditions and myths which govern their perception of natural phenomena. They have their own "world-views", that is, beliefs about the world that support both common-sense and scientific theories 9 .
1.3. Personal Relevance
Often in the past and the present, science teaching and learning has been directed towards gathering of objective facts and ideas. Students were taught to accept what they were told even when they could not see the relationships or the usefulness of the things they learn to their lives and to the social world outside the classroom. This is not to say that everything learnt in class should immediately and directly be mapped back to everyday life. An opportunity is missing that permits students to reflect on what they are learning about, to engage in a discursive activity that challenges [students] to reflect critically on [their] scientific knowledge or on the usefulness of that knowledge in the social world beyond the classroom 10 .
Students have their own points of view about many objects and ideas that they encounter. Such points of view need be sought and valued, even when they may appear at first rudimentary and wayward. The classroom environment remains manageable despite differing points of view because
discipline emanates mostly from the individual as teachers and learners share leadership roles. ….. teachers must focus on instructional goals rather than functioning primarily as disciplinarians. ….. In order to promote autonomy and prevent an overbalance of heteronomy, constructivist teachers consciously monitor their interactions with children 11 .
1.4. Student Negotiation
Students need an environment in which they can disclose and discuss their feelings. This is not simple in the normal classroom where the teacher is concerned about completing the syllabus with all thirty-plus students whose feelings matter. The diversity of opinions that can arise from a statement like: "How do you feel about our recent study of genetics?" or "What further related topics do you want us to talk about in future lessons?" often threatens the teacher who then resorts to spoon-feeding, dictating content, sequence and schedule of learning.
The research paradigm adopted in this study is the case study using mixed methods, dominantly qualitative 12 , and described as, ". multi-method in focus, involving an interpretive, naturalistic approach to its subject matter" 13 . This method facilitated data triangulation, producing a neat balance between the subjects' and the researcher's viewpoints. Non-participant observation, questionnaires, individual interviews and focus groups were used in a triangulation process to gather rich data from a single biology class so as to produce a "thick description" 12 . Data collected at the beginning of fieldwork through questionnaires was briefly analysed and used to generate new but connected questions and information for further observations and interviews (hermeneutic circles) in an explanatory sequential mixed methods design 14, 15 . The analysis of data was an in-built, continuous process beginning during the fieldwork (fieldwork analysis) and proceeding beyond it (post-fieldwork analysis). For example, a popular response in the questionnaires would be followed up in class observations and interviews for clarification, confirmation or disconfirmation.
The main instrument for the smaller quantitative component was the re-visited teacher and student versions of the revised Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES) 16 . The instrument has 6 items each on personal relevance and student negotiation, and uses a 5-point descending order Likert scale featuring the responses: almost always, often, sometimes, seldom, almost never for positively framed statements. The student version of the CLES was used in the main study with a lot of help being given to students with regard to language, including translating some items to vernacular where necessary. Interview and focus group question guides, as well as observation schedules were also used for the qualitative data phase.
Following a few weeks of preparation, the data collection commenced with the administration of the questionnaire to the purposively selected teacher and her class of twenty. After an analysis of the responses, and the identification of respondents of special interest, a focus group consisting of the teacher and four students was conducted, followed by individual interviews with five randomly selected students and the teacher.
3. Results and Discussion
Sipho (not her real name) is an indigenous African biology teacher in a coeducational government secondary school in a middle-income suburb in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. This year, she teaches general science to four junior classes, and biology to one senior Advanced (A) Level class. She was observed for one week teaching this senior biology class of indigenous African students comprising twelve boys and eight girls aged between seventeen and nineteen.
Sipho had indicated during our initial preparatory meeting that she was willing to participate in the study mainly to learn about some science pedagogy since, she acknowledged, she had no professional teaching qualification. With three years of teaching experience behind her, she has only a discipline-specific qualification, a Bachelor of Science in Microbiology. She has, in the past, attended a few in-service seminars on the teaching of science organized by the local universities and the Ministry of Primary and Secondary Education.
3.2. Conceptualising Personal Relevance of Learning and Student Negotiation
Sipho's responses to the CLES indicate that, from her perspective, she teaches biology very often to make the subject personally relevant to her students, relating to their out-of-the classroom world, and she almost always supports student negotiation in her class (See Table 1 and Figure 1).
Results of the present study suggest that, during the mitigation stage of the COVID-19 epidemic when orthodontic services are gradually resuming, orthodontic professionals in China are generally confident that they understand COVID-19-related risks and knowledge, and about two-thirds of them are willing to treat or care for COVID-19 patients. In addition, COVID-19-related training programs are essential for the improvement of knowledge, confidence, and preparedness of orthodontic professionals before work resumption. Sufficient and proper protection should also be provided to ensure safety and reduce the psychological burden on them.
Length and writing style
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Teaching during Covid-19
We are delivering hybrid teaching for on-campus students during the 2020-2021 academic year.
Our teaching model for 2021-2022 will depend on Covid-19 restrictions at the time. We will provide you with regular updates on what to expect throughout the application process.
A meaningful schistosomiasis control programme should take into account people’s knowledge, perceptions, attitudes and practices on the disease. Despite good knowledge, perceptions, attitudes and practices on schistosomiasis by a substantial segment of the study participants, this study revealed misconceptions and inadequate knowledge on the disease among participants in Shinyanga district which suggest that participants had limited information about the disease which in turn calls for health education campaigns as part of disease control interventions.. Collaborative efforts between the government and the community are required to reduce water contact behaviors that results in the transmission of urinary schistosomiasis. To make this feasible, health education and availability of alternative sources of clean and safe water are recommended to complement ongoing efforts to control schistosomiasis in Shinyanga district and other endemic areas.